Diet, microbiota, and microbial metabolites in colon cancer risk in rural Africans and African Americans

submitted by: sjokeefe
Background: Epidemiologic studies have suggested that most cases of sporadic colon cancer can be attributed to diet. The recognition that colonic microbiota have a major influence on colonic health suggests that they might mediate colonic carcinogenesis. Objective: To examine the hypothesis that the influence of diet on colon cancer risk is mediated by the microbiota through their metabolites, we measured differences in colonic microbes and their metabolites in African Americans with a...
Authors: Junhai Ou, Franck Carbonero, Erwin G Zoetendal, James P DeLany, Mei Wang, Keith Newton, H Rex Gaskins, Stephen JD O’Keefe

A Whole-Grain–Rich Diet Reduces Urinary Excretion of Markers of Protein Catabolism and Gut Microbiota Metabolism in Healthy Men after One Week

submitted by: Alastair Ross
Epidemiological studies consistently find that diets rich in whole-grain (WG) cereals lead to decreased risk of disease compared with refined grain (RG)-based diets. Aside from a greater amount of fiber and micronutrients, possible mechanisms for why WGs may be beneficial for health remain speculative. In an exploratory, randomized, researcherblinded, crossover trial, we measured metabolic profile differences between healthy participants eating a diet based on WGs compared with a diet...
Authors: Alastair Ross, Emma Pere-Trépat, Ivan Montoliu, Francois-Pierre Martin, Sebastiano Collino, Sofia Moco, Jean-Philippe Godin, Marilyn Cléroux, Philippe Guy, Isabelle Breton, Rodrigo Bibiloni, Anita Thorimbert, Isabelle Tavazzi, Lionel Tornier, Aude Bebuis, Stephen Bruce, Maurice Beaumont, Laurent-Bernard Fay, Sunil Kochhar

Consumer attitudes and understanding of low sodium claims on food: An analysis of healthy and hypertensive individuals

submitted by: Christina.L.Wong
Background: Sodium-related claims on food labels should facilitate lower-sodium food choices; however, consumer attitudes and understanding of such claims are unknown. Objectives: We evaluated consumer attitudes and understanding of different types of sodium claims and the effect of having hypertension on responses to such claims. Design: Canadian consumers (n = 506), with and without hypertension, completed an online survey that contained a randomized mock package experiment, which...
Authors: Christina Wong, JoAnne Arcand, Julio Mendoza, Spencer Henson, Ying Qi, Wendy Lou, Mary L'Abbé

Grape Powder Supplementation Prevents Oxidative Stress–Induced Anxiety-Like Behavior, Memory Impairment, and High Blood Pressure in Rats

submitted by: ssalim
We examined whether or not grape powder treatment ameliorates oxidative stress–induced anxiety-like behavior, memory impairment, and hypertension in rats. Oxidative stress in Sprague-Dawley rats was produced by using L-buthionine- (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO). Four groups of rats were used: 1) control (C; injected with vehicle and provided with tap water), 2) grape powder–treated (GP; injected with vehicle and provided for 3 wk with 15 g/L grape powder dissolved in tap water), 3)...
Authors: Farida Allam, An Dao, Gaurav Chugh, Ritu Bohat, Faizan Jafri, Gaurav Patki, Christopher Mowrey, Mohammad Asghar, Karim Alkadhi, Samina Salim

Low folate status enhances pregnancy changes in plasma betaine and dimethylglycine concentrations and the association between betaine and homocysteine

submitted by: Michelle Murphy
ABSTRACT Background: Folate, choline, and betaine participate in homocysteine metabolism. It is not known whether they interact during pregnancy. Objective: The objective was to investigate how folate status affects choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine during pregnancy. Design: Fasting plasma folate, cobalamin, free choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, and total homocysteine (tHcy) were measured longitudinally at ,12, 15, 24–27, and 34 gestational weeks (GW); at labor (nonfasting);...
Authors: Silvia Fernandez-Roig, Michelle M Murphy

Childhood Food Allergies: Current Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management Strategies

submitted by: WentzMR

In the May 2013 issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, available at: http://tinyurl.com/c7tp8jb
Dr. Ruchi Gupta, an Associate Professor of Pediatrics at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Ann & Robert H Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago in IL, interprets recently published guidelines on childhood food allergies to aid clinicians in their practice.