Changes in Erythrocyte Membrane Trans and Marine Fatty Acids between 1999 and 2006 in Older Americans.

submitted by: jpolreis
Over the last several years, national programs to lower the content of industrially produced (IP) C18:1 and C18:2 trans fatty acids in foods have been implemented, but whether this has resulted in lower blood trans fatty acid levels is unknown. Likewise, an increased perception of the health benefits of fish oils rich in EPA and DHA may have resulted in an increase in consumption and blood levels of these fatty acids. To explore these issues, we analyzed the changes in RBC fatty acid...
Authors: WS Harris, JV Pottala

Early participation in prenatal food supplementation program ameliorates the negative association of food insecurity with quality of maternal-infant interaction

submitted by: afrith
Food insecurity is detrimental to child development, yet little is known about the combined influence of food insecurity and nutritional interventions on child development in low-income countries. We proposed that women assigned to an early invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program could reduce the negative influence of food insecurity on maternal-infant interaction. A cohort of 180 mother-infant dyads were sampled (born between May and October 2003) from among 3267 in...
Authors: Amy Frith, Ruchira Naved, Lars Ake Persson, Kathleen Rasmussen, Edward Frongillo

Suicidal Ideation and Self-Harm in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth

submitted by: mustanski
Background: Suicide is the third-leading cause of death among adolescents and nonsuicidal self-harm occurs in 13%–45% of individuals within this age group, making these phenomena major public health concerns. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth particularly are at risk for engaging in these behaviors. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the specif?c risk factors associated with suicidal ideation and self-harm behaviors in the population. Purpose: This...
Authors: Richard Liu, Brian Mustanski

Generation and acculturation status are associated with dietary intake and body weight in Mexican American adolescents

submitted by: jhliu
Mexican-American children are disproportionately affected by obesity. Data on how acculturation process influences diet and body weight among adolescents are limited. We used the data from the 1999-2004 NHANES, restricting to 2,286 Mexican American children between 12-19 years old. Acculturation was measured by generation status and language preference. Diet was assessed using 24-h diet recall. Multiple linear, Tobit, logistic, and quantile regression models were used. We found, after...
Authors: Jihong Liu, Y Chu, EA Frongillo, JC Probst

U.S. Hookah Tobacco Smoking Establishments Advertised on the Internet

submitted by: betlertc
Background: Establishments dedicated to hookah tobacco smoking recently have proliferated and helped introduce hookah use to U.S. communities. Purpose: To conduct a comprehensive, qualitative assessment of websites promoting these establishments. Methods: In June 2009, a systematic search process was initiated to access the universe of websites representing major hookah tobacco smoking establishments. In 2009 –2010, codebook development followed an iterative paradigm involving three...
Authors: Brian Primack, Kristen Rice, Ariel Shensa, Mary Carroll, Erica DePenna, Rima Nakkash, Tracey Barnett

The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris' Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released through Lit

submitted by: glantz
This video describes the peer reviewed paper, Wertz MS, Kyriss T, Paranjape S, Glantz SA (2011) The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris' Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation. PLoS Med 8(12): e1001145. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001145 Background In 2009, the promulgation of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco regulation focused attention on cigarette flavor additives. The tobacco industry had prepared for this...

Vitamin D deficiency and mortality risk in the general population: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

submitted by: wbgrant
Background: Low vitamin D status may increase mortality risk. OBJECTIVE: We used nonparametric ("highest compared with lowest" categories) and parametric (>2 categories) statistical models to evaluate associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] serum concentrations and mortality in observational studies among general populations. DESIGN: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and reference lists for relevant articles. We included studies that contained data on relative risks (RRs)...
Authors: Armin Zittermann, Simona Iodice, Stefan Pilz, William B. Grant, Vincenzo Bagnardi, Sara Gandini

Correcting for Inflammation Changes Estimates of Iron Deficiency among Rural Kenyan Preschool Children

submitted by: ebogrant5
The assessment of iron status where infections are common is complicated by the effects of inflammation on iron indicators and in this study we compared approaches that adjust for this influence. Blood was collected in 680 children (aged 6–35 mo) and indicators of iron status [(hemoglobin (Hb), zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), ferritin, transferrin receptor (TfR), and TfR/ferritin index)] and subclinical inflammation [(the acute phase proteins (APP) C-reactive protein (CRP), and a-1-acid...
Authors: Frederick Grant, Parminder Suchdev, Rafael Flores-Ayala, Conrad Cole, Usha Ramakrishnan, Laird Ruth, Reynaldo Martorell

Multisector Intervention to Accelerate Reductions in Child Stunting: An Observational Study from 9 Sub-Saharan African Countries

submitted by: Alison Rose
Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, ~40% of children <5 y old are stunted, with levels that have remained largely unchanged over the past 2 decades. Although the complex determinants of undernutrition are well recognized, few studies have evaluated strategies that combine nutrition-specific, health-based approaches with food system– and livelihood-based interventions. Objective: We examined changes in childhood stunting and its determinants after 3 y of exposure to an integrated,...
Authors: Roseline Remans, Paul M. Pronyk, Jessica C. Fanzo, Jiehua Chen, Cheryl A. Palm, Bennett Nemser, Maria Muniz, Alex Radunsky, Alem Hadera Abay, Mouctar Coulibaly, Joseph Mensah-Homiah, Margaret Wagah, Xiaoyi An, Christine Mwaura, Eva Quintana, Marie-Andree Somers, Pedro A. Sanchez, Sonia E. Sachs, John W. Mcarthur, Jeffrey D. Sachs

"Home Smoking Bans Among U.S. Households with Children and Smokers" and "Association Between Smokefree Laws and Voluntary Smokefree-Home Rules"

submitted by: glantz
"Home Smoking Bans Among U.S. Households with Children and Smokers" Background: Public health campaigns have reduced the exposure of U.S. children to secondhand smoke at home; however, these may not have been equally effective across subgroups. Purpose: To examine prevalence of home smoking bans among U.S. households with both children and smokers, over time and by demographic subgroups. Methods: The Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) is a nationally...
Authors: Alice Mills, Martha White, John Pierce, Karen Messer, Kai wen Cheng, James Lightwood, Stanton Glantz