Association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and obesity development at ages 5 and 7y: a prospective cohort study of 656 children from the Faroe Islands

submitted by:
Abstract Background: Chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities may act as obesogens and interfere with the body's natural weight-control mechanisms, especially if exposure occurs during prenatal life. Objective: We examined the association between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and subsequent obesity at 5 and 7 y of age. Design: From 1997 to 2000, 656 pregnant Faroese women were recruited. PCB and DDE were...
Authors: Jeanett L Tang-Péronard, Berit L Heitmann, Helle R Andersen, Ulrike Steuerwald, Philippe Grandjean, Pál Weihe, Tina K Jensen

Maternal knowledge following nutrition behavior change communication is conditional upon both health workers’ knowledge and knowledge sharing efficacy in rural Haiti

submitted by: mduduzi
In the context of a food assistance program in rural Haiti, we developed measures of the effectiveness of community health worker (CHW)-delivered behavior change communication (BCC). We administered knowledge tests to 954 mothers and 38 CHWs to define 4 measures: CHW knowledge, maternal knowledge, knowledge-sharing efficacy (proportion of CHW knowledge shared), and shared correct knowledge between the CHWs and the mothers with whom they interacted. On the basis of the tests, CHWs had high...
Authors: Mduduzi Mbuya

Active Travel to Work and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the United Kingdom

submitted by: samwong
Background: Increasing active travel (walking, cycling, public transport) is increasingly seen as integral to strategies to raise physical activity levels. Purpose: This study examined (1) sociodemographic correlates of active travel to work and (2) associations between active travel and cardiovascular risk factors in the United Kingdom (UK). Methods: Data come from Understanding Society, a nationally representative survey of UK residents in 2009/2011, analyzed in 2012. Multinomial...
Authors: Anthony Laverty, Jennifer Mindell, Elizabeth Webb, Christopher Millett

Walk Scores and Transit Scores and Walking in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

submitted by: Jahirsch
Background: Walk Scores and Transit Scores are open-source measures of the neighborhood built environment to support walking (“walkability”) and access to transportation. Purpose: To investigate associations of Street Smart Walk Score and Transit Score with selfreported transport and leisure walking using data from a large multicity and diverse populationbased sample of adults. Methods: Data from a sample of 4552 residents of Baltimore MD, Chicago IL, Forsyth County NC, Los Angeles...
Authors: Jana Hirsch, Kari Moore, Kelly Evenson, Daniel Rodriguez, Ana Diez Roux

School-Day and Overall Physical Activity Among Youth

submitted by: MichaelLong
Background: Increasing school-day physical activity through policy and programs is commonly suggested to prevent obesity and improve overall child health. However, strategies that focus on school-day physical activity may not increase total physical activity if youth compensate by reducing physical activity outside of school. Purpose: Objectively measured, nationally representative physical activity data were used to test the hypothesis that higher school-day physical activity is...
Authors: Michael Long, Arthur Sobol, Angie Cradock, SV Subramanian, Robert Blendon, Steven Gortmaker

Consumer attitudes and understanding of low sodium claims on food: An analysis of healthy and hypertensive individuals

submitted by: Christina.L.Wong
Background: Sodium-related claims on food labels should facilitate lower-sodium food choices; however, consumer attitudes and understanding of such claims are unknown. Objectives: We evaluated consumer attitudes and understanding of different types of sodium claims and the effect of having hypertension on responses to such claims. Design: Canadian consumers (n = 506), with and without hypertension, completed an online survey that contained a randomized mock package experiment, which...
Authors: Christina Wong, JoAnne Arcand, Julio Mendoza, Spencer Henson, Ying Qi, Wendy Lou, Mary L'Abbé

Association of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study

submitted by: loudegri
Background: Epidemiological evidence suggests that fruit consumption may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases through blood pressure (BP)–lowering effects; little is known on the independent effect of raw fruit and fruit juice on BP. Objective: The objective was to quantify associations of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with BP by using cross-sectional data from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) of 4680 men and women aged...
Authors: Linda Oude Griep, Jeremiah Stamler, Queenie Chan, Linda Van Horn, Lyn Steffen, Katsuyuki Miura, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Nagako Okuda, Liancheng Zhao, Martha Daviglus, Paul Elliott

Beneficial effects of a higher-protein breakfast on the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals controlling energy intake regulation in overweight/obese, “breakfast-skipping,” late-adolescent girls

submitted by: hurstn
Background: Breakfast skipping is a common dietary habit practiced among adolescents and is strongly associated with obesity. Objective: The objective was to examine whether a high-protein (HP) compared with a normal-protein (NP) breakfast leads to daily improvements in appetite, satiety, food motivation and reward, and evening snacking in overweight or obese breakfast-skipping girls. Design: A randomized crossover design was incorporated in which 20 girls [mean 6 SEM age: 19 6 1 y;...
Authors: Steve Douglas, Heather Hoertel, Heather Leidy, Laura Ortinau

Is there a dose-response relation of dietary glycemic load to risk of type 2 diabetes? Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

submitted by: Geoffrey Livesey
Background: Although much is known about the association between dietary glycemic load (GL) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), prospective cohort studies have not consistently shown a positive dose-response relation. Objective: We performed a comprehensive examination of evidence on the dose response that links GL to T2D and sources of heterogeneity among all prospective cohort studies on healthy adults available in the literature. Design: We conducted a systematic review of all prospective...
Authors: Geoffrey Livesey, Richard Taylor, Helen Livesey, Simin Liu

Being Overweight or Obese Is Associated with Lower Prevalence of Anemia among Colombian Women of Reproductive Age

submitted by: kasiek
Overweight and micronutrient deficiencies have manifested in the same individuals. This study investigated the association among iron deficiency (ID), anemia, and weight status among nonpregnant Colombian females aged 13-49 y (n = 3267). Data from the 2005 National Survey of the Nutrition Situation were used. The prevalence of ID (plasma ferritin <12.0 ?g/L; individuals with CRP >0.012 g/L excluded) and anemia (altitude-adjusted hemoglobin <120 g/L) was estimated separately. The...
Authors: Katarzyna Kordas, Zulma Centeno, Helena Pachon, Ana Zulema Soto