Energy intake and expenditure during sedentary screen time and motion-controlled video gaming

submitted by: LIZ_LYONS
BACKGROUND: Television watching and playing of video games (VGs) are associated with higher energy intakes. Motion-controlled video games (MC) may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen-based activities because of higher energy expenditures, but little is known about the effects of these games on energy intakes. OBJECTIVE: Energy intake, expenditure, and surplus (intake - expenditure) were compared during sedentary (television and VG) and active (MC) screen-time use. DESIGN: Young...
Authors: Elizabeth Lyons, Deborah Tate, Dianne Ward, Xiaoshan Wang

Prepregnancy adherence to dietary patterns and lower risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

submitted by: dtobias
Abstract BACKGROUND: Previous studies observed inverse associations of adherence to the alternate Mediterranean (aMED), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI) dietary patterns with risk of type 2 diabetes; however, their associations with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk are unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess usual prepregnancy adherence to well-known dietary patterns and GDM risk. DESIGN: Our study included 21,376...
Authors: Deirdre Tobias, Cuilin Zhang, Jorge Chavarro, Katherine Bowers, Janet Rich-Edwards, Bernard Rosner, Dariush Mozaffarian, Frank Hu

Randomized controlled trial of 4 compared with 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding in Iceland: differences in breast-milk intake by stable-isotope probe.

submitted by: jonathanwells
BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 mo after birth. However, the time at which breast milk ceases to provide adequate energy and nutrition, requiring the introduction of complementary foods, remains unclear. Most studies that investigated this issue were observational and potentially confounded by variability in social circumstances or infant growth. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that EBF infants would consume more breast milk at age 6 mo than infants receiving...
Authors: Jonathan Wells, Olof Jonsdottir, Patricia Hibberd, Mary Fewtrell, Inga Thorsdottir, Simon Eaton, Alan Lucas, Geir Gunnlaugsson, Ronald Kleinman

Greater whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and weight gain

submitted by: sarachacko
Whole-grain and high fiber intakes are routinely recommended for prevention of vascular diseases; however, there are no comprehensive and quantitative assessments of available data in humans. The aim of this study was to systematically examine longitudinal studies investigating whole-grain and fiber intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD), weight gain, and metabolic risk factors. We identified 45 prospective cohort studies and 21...
Authors: Sara A. Chacko, Eva Qing Ye, Elizabeth L. Chou, Matthew Kugizaki, Simin Liu

Changes in Erythrocyte Membrane Trans and Marine Fatty Acids between 1999 and 2006 in Older Americans.

submitted by: jpolreis
Over the last several years, national programs to lower the content of industrially produced (IP) C18:1 and C18:2 trans fatty acids in foods have been implemented, but whether this has resulted in lower blood trans fatty acid levels is unknown. Likewise, an increased perception of the health benefits of fish oils rich in EPA and DHA may have resulted in an increase in consumption and blood levels of these fatty acids. To explore these issues, we analyzed the changes in RBC fatty acid...
Authors: WS Harris, JV Pottala

Fad Diets

submitted by: akchin

We are featuring common Fad Diet commercials, bringing in a Pharmacist's expertise on the matter, and presenting the reality of the best way to have a healthy lifestyle.

Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis

submitted by: Laura Tripkovic
Background: Currently, there is a lack of clarity in the literature as to whether there is a definitive difference between the effects of vitamins D2 and D3 in the raising of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Objective: The objective of this article was to report a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have directly compared the effects of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 on serum 25(OH)D concentrations in humans. Design: The ISI Web of Knowledge...
Authors: Laura Tripkovic, Helen Lambert, Kathryn Hart, Colin P Smith, Giselda Bucca, Simon Penson, Gemma Chope, Elina Hypponen, Jacqueline Berry, Reinhold Vieth, Susan Lanham-New

Effects of n-6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial

submitted by: Iggman
ABSTRACT Background: Replacing SFAs with vegetable PUFAs has cardiometabolic benefits, but the effects on liver fat are unknown. Increased dietary n-6 PUFAs have, however, also been proposed to promote inflammation—a yet unproven theory. Objective: We investigated the effects of PUFAs on liver fat, systemic inflammation, and metabolic disorders. Design: We randomly assigned 67 abdominally obese subjects (15% had type 2 diabetes) to a 10-wk isocaloric diet high in vegetable n-6...
Authors: Helena Bjermo

Retail Grocery Store Marketing Strategies and Obesity: An Integrative Review

submitted by: kglanz
Context: In-store food marketing can influence food-purchasing behaviors and warrants increased attention given the dramatic rise in obesity. Descriptive and experimental studies of key marketing components have been conducted by consumer scientists, marketing researchers, and public health experts. This review synthesizes research and publications from industry and academic sources and provides direction for developing and evaluating promising interventions. Evidence acquisition:...
Authors: Karen Glanz, Michael D.M. Bader, Shally Iyer

Dr. Cohen's Clinical Trial for Breast Cancer Patients

submitted by: mdanderson

Lorenzo Cohen, Ph.D., discusses a new clinical trial that will test the effects of lifestyle changes on cancer recurrence. Breast cancer patients in the study will receive coaching on nutrition, exercise, stress reduction and strengthening their social connections.