Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

submitted by: tom_witches
Background: It is currently unclear whether altering the carbohydrate-to-protein ratio of low-fat, energy-restricted diets augments weight loss and cardiometabolic risk markers. Objective: The objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that compared energy-restricted, isocaloric, high-protein, low-fat (HP) diets with standard-protein, low-fat (SP) diets on weight loss, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), satiety and appetite, and...
Authors: Thomas Wycherley, Lisa Moran, Peter Clifton, Manny Noakes, Grant Brinkworth

Jews and Arabs in the same region in Israel exhibit major differences in dietary patterns

submitted by: kathleena
The Jewish majority and Arab minority populations in Israel exhibit disparities in nutrition-related chronic diseases, but comparative population-based dietary studies are lacking. We evaluated ethnic differences in dietary patterns in a population-based cross-sectional study of Arab and Jewish urban adults (n=1,104; aged 25-74 y). Dietary intake was assessed with an interviewer-administered quantified FFQ. We used principal-component analysis to identify 4 major dietary patterns: Ethnic,...
Authors: K Abu-Saad, H Murad, F Lubin, LS Freedman, A Ziv, G Alpert, A Atamna, O Kalter-Leibovici

Dietary Selenium Deficiency Partially Rescues Type 2 Diabetes–Like Phenotypes of Glutathione Peroxidase-1–Overexpressing Male Mice

submitted by: xlei
This study was conducted to determine whether dietary Se deficiency precluded overproduction of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) activity in mice overexpressing (OE) this gene and thus rescued their type 2 diabetes–like phenotypes. A total of 20 male OE and wild-type (WT) mice were fed an Se-deficient (<0.02 mg/kg) diet or an Se-supplemented (0.3 mg/kg as sodium selenite) diet from 1 to 5 mo of age. Dietary Se deficiency eliminated or attenuated (P < 0.05) genotype differences in...
Authors: Xin Gen Lei, Li Li, Matt Pepper, Carol Roneker, Marko Vatamaniuk, Xi Yan

Maternal Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status but not Prenatal Methylmercury exposure is associated with Children’s Language Functions at Age Five Years in the Seychelles

submitted by: msmulhern
Evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study suggests that maternal nutritional status can modulate the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and developmental outcomes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal PUFA status was a confounding factor in any possible associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes at 5 y of age in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal status of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA were...
Authors: JJ Strain, Philip W Davidson, Sally W Thurston, Donald Harrington, Maria S Mulhern, Alison J McAfee, Edwin van Wijngaarden, Conrad F Shamlaye, Juliette Henderson, Gene E Watson, Grazyna Zareba, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, Miranda Lynch, Julie M W Wallace, Emeir M McSorley, Maxine P Bonham, Abbie Stokes-Riner, Jean Sloan-Reeves, Joanne Janciuras, Rosa Wong

Urinary a-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman can be used as a predictor of a-tocopherol adequacy, as demonstrated in the Energetics Study

submitted by: mtraber
Background: Other than the in vitro erythrocyte hemolysis test, no valid biomarkers of vitamin E status currently exist. Objective: We hypothesized that the urinary vitamin E metabolite a-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman (a-CEHC) could serve as a biomarker. Design: The relations between urinary a-CEHC, plasma a-tocopherol, and vitamin E intakes were assessed by using a previously validated multipass, Web-based, 24-h self-administered dietary recall, and we concurrently collected plasma and...
Authors: Katie M Lebold, Alfonso Ang, Maret G Traber, Lenore Arab

No Difference in Nutritional Value Between Organic And Conventional Foods

submitted by: YourUpdateTV

A new study released in the Annals of Internal Medicine revealed that there is no significant difference in organic and conventional foods comparing nutrition and safety. The study included a review of 17 human studies and 223 studies of nutrient and contaminant levels in unprocessed foods.

Unmetabolized folic acid prevalence is widespread in the older Irish population despite the lack of a mandatory fortification program

submitted by: MaryRose
BACKGROUND: In 2006 the Food Safety Authority of Ireland recommended mandatory folic acid fortification of flour for the prevention of neural tube defects in addition to the existing extensive voluntary folic acid fortification culture in place there. This recommendation is now suspended until further scientific evidence surrounding safety becomes available. The safety issues include concerns about the masking of vitamin B-12 deficiency and potential cancer acceleration, both of which may...
Authors: Andrew Boilson, Anthony Staines, Cecily C Kelleher, Leslie Daly, Shirley Ivan, Aakash Shrivastava, Steven B Bailey, Patricia B Alverson, June E Ayling, Anne ParleMcDermott, Aoife MacCooey, John M Scott, Mary Rose Sweeney

Energy intake and expenditure during sedentary screen time and motion-controlled video gaming

submitted by: LIZ_LYONS
BACKGROUND: Television watching and playing of video games (VGs) are associated with higher energy intakes. Motion-controlled video games (MC) may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen-based activities because of higher energy expenditures, but little is known about the effects of these games on energy intakes. OBJECTIVE: Energy intake, expenditure, and surplus (intake - expenditure) were compared during sedentary (television and VG) and active (MC) screen-time use. DESIGN: Young...
Authors: Elizabeth Lyons, Deborah Tate, Dianne Ward, Xiaoshan Wang

Prepregnancy adherence to dietary patterns and lower risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

submitted by: dtobias
Abstract BACKGROUND: Previous studies observed inverse associations of adherence to the alternate Mediterranean (aMED), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI) dietary patterns with risk of type 2 diabetes; however, their associations with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk are unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess usual prepregnancy adherence to well-known dietary patterns and GDM risk. DESIGN: Our study included 21,376...
Authors: Deirdre Tobias, Cuilin Zhang, Jorge Chavarro, Katherine Bowers, Janet Rich-Edwards, Bernard Rosner, Dariush Mozaffarian, Frank Hu

Randomized controlled trial of 4 compared with 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding in Iceland: differences in breast-milk intake by stable-isotope probe.

submitted by: jonathanwells
BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 mo after birth. However, the time at which breast milk ceases to provide adequate energy and nutrition, requiring the introduction of complementary foods, remains unclear. Most studies that investigated this issue were observational and potentially confounded by variability in social circumstances or infant growth. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that EBF infants would consume more breast milk at age 6 mo than infants receiving...
Authors: Jonathan Wells, Olof Jonsdottir, Patricia Hibberd, Mary Fewtrell, Inga Thorsdottir, Simon Eaton, Alan Lucas, Geir Gunnlaugsson, Ronald Kleinman