Does transportation mode modify associations between distance to food store, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI in low-income neighborhoods?

submitted by: fuller.daniel
Background: A consistent body of research has shown that the neighborhood food environment is associated with fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and obesity in deprived neighborhoods in the United States. However, these studies have often neglected to consider how transportation can moderate associations between food accessibility and diet-related outcomes. Objective: This study examined associations between distance to primary food store, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI...
Authors: Daniel Fuller, Steven Cummins, Stephen Matthews

This Kinetic, Bioavailability, and Metabolism Study of RRR-alpha-Tocopherol in Healthy Adults Suggests Lower Intake Requirements than Previous Estimates

submitted by: jnusda
Kinetic models enable nutrient needs and kinetic behaviors to be quantified and provide mechanistic insights into metabolism. Therefore, we modeled and quantified the kinetics, bioavailability, and metabolism of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in 12 healthy adults. Six men and 6 women, aged 27 +/- 6 y, each ingested 1.81 nmol of 14C-RRR-alpha-tocopherol; each dose had 3.70 kBq of 14C. Complete collections of urine and feces were made over the first 21d from dosing. Serial blood samples were drawn over...
Authors: Janet Novotny, James Fadel, Dirk Holstege, Harold Furr, Andrew Clifford

Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

submitted by: tom_witches
Background: It is currently unclear whether altering the carbohydrate-to-protein ratio of low-fat, energy-restricted diets augments weight loss and cardiometabolic risk markers. Objective: The objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that compared energy-restricted, isocaloric, high-protein, low-fat (HP) diets with standard-protein, low-fat (SP) diets on weight loss, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), satiety and appetite, and...
Authors: Thomas Wycherley, Lisa Moran, Peter Clifton, Manny Noakes, Grant Brinkworth

Jews and Arabs in the same region in Israel exhibit major differences in dietary patterns

submitted by: kathleena
The Jewish majority and Arab minority populations in Israel exhibit disparities in nutrition-related chronic diseases, but comparative population-based dietary studies are lacking. We evaluated ethnic differences in dietary patterns in a population-based cross-sectional study of Arab and Jewish urban adults (n=1,104; aged 25-74 y). Dietary intake was assessed with an interviewer-administered quantified FFQ. We used principal-component analysis to identify 4 major dietary patterns: Ethnic,...
Authors: K Abu-Saad, H Murad, F Lubin, LS Freedman, A Ziv, G Alpert, A Atamna, O Kalter-Leibovici

Dietary Selenium Deficiency Partially Rescues Type 2 Diabetes–Like Phenotypes of Glutathione Peroxidase-1–Overexpressing Male Mice

submitted by: xlei
This study was conducted to determine whether dietary Se deficiency precluded overproduction of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) activity in mice overexpressing (OE) this gene and thus rescued their type 2 diabetes–like phenotypes. A total of 20 male OE and wild-type (WT) mice were fed an Se-deficient (<0.02 mg/kg) diet or an Se-supplemented (0.3 mg/kg as sodium selenite) diet from 1 to 5 mo of age. Dietary Se deficiency eliminated or attenuated (P < 0.05) genotype differences in...
Authors: Xin Gen Lei, Li Li, Matt Pepper, Carol Roneker, Marko Vatamaniuk, Xi Yan

Maternal Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status but not Prenatal Methylmercury exposure is associated with Children’s Language Functions at Age Five Years in the Seychelles

submitted by: msmulhern
Evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study suggests that maternal nutritional status can modulate the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and developmental outcomes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal PUFA status was a confounding factor in any possible associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes at 5 y of age in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal status of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA were...
Authors: JJ Strain, Philip W Davidson, Sally W Thurston, Donald Harrington, Maria S Mulhern, Alison J McAfee, Edwin van Wijngaarden, Conrad F Shamlaye, Juliette Henderson, Gene E Watson, Grazyna Zareba, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, Miranda Lynch, Julie M W Wallace, Emeir M McSorley, Maxine P Bonham, Abbie Stokes-Riner, Jean Sloan-Reeves, Joanne Janciuras, Rosa Wong

Urinary a-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman can be used as a predictor of a-tocopherol adequacy, as demonstrated in the Energetics Study

submitted by: mtraber
Background: Other than the in vitro erythrocyte hemolysis test, no valid biomarkers of vitamin E status currently exist. Objective: We hypothesized that the urinary vitamin E metabolite a-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman (a-CEHC) could serve as a biomarker. Design: The relations between urinary a-CEHC, plasma a-tocopherol, and vitamin E intakes were assessed by using a previously validated multipass, Web-based, 24-h self-administered dietary recall, and we concurrently collected plasma and...
Authors: Katie M Lebold, Alfonso Ang, Maret G Traber, Lenore Arab

No Difference in Nutritional Value Between Organic And Conventional Foods

submitted by: YourUpdateTV

A new study released in the Annals of Internal Medicine revealed that there is no significant difference in organic and conventional foods comparing nutrition and safety. The study included a review of 17 human studies and 223 studies of nutrient and contaminant levels in unprocessed foods.

Unmetabolized folic acid prevalence is widespread in the older Irish population despite the lack of a mandatory fortification program

submitted by: MaryRose
BACKGROUND: In 2006 the Food Safety Authority of Ireland recommended mandatory folic acid fortification of flour for the prevention of neural tube defects in addition to the existing extensive voluntary folic acid fortification culture in place there. This recommendation is now suspended until further scientific evidence surrounding safety becomes available. The safety issues include concerns about the masking of vitamin B-12 deficiency and potential cancer acceleration, both of which may...
Authors: Andrew Boilson, Anthony Staines, Cecily C Kelleher, Leslie Daly, Shirley Ivan, Aakash Shrivastava, Steven B Bailey, Patricia B Alverson, June E Ayling, Anne ParleMcDermott, Aoife MacCooey, John M Scott, Mary Rose Sweeney