Dietary patterns and risk of dementia in an elderly Japanese population: the Hisayama Study

submitted by: Mio
ABSTRACT Background: To our knowledge, there are no previous reports that assessed the association between dietary patterns and risk of dementia in Asian populations. Objective: We investigated dietary patterns and their potential association with risk of incident dementia in a general Japanese population. Design: A total of 1006 community-dwelling Japanese subjects without dementia, aged 60–79 y, were followed up for a median of 15 y. The reduced rank regression procedure was used to...
Authors: Mio Ozawa, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Tomoyuki Ohara, Yasufumi Doi, Kazuhiro Uchida, Tomoko Shirota, Koji Yonemoto, Takanari Kitazono, Yutaka Kiyohara

Beneficial effects of a higher-protein breakfast on the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals controlling energy intake regulation in overweight/obese, “breakfast-skipping,” late-adolescent girls

submitted by: hurstn
Background: Breakfast skipping is a common dietary habit practiced among adolescents and is strongly associated with obesity. Objective: The objective was to examine whether a high-protein (HP) compared with a normal-protein (NP) breakfast leads to daily improvements in appetite, satiety, food motivation and reward, and evening snacking in overweight or obese breakfast-skipping girls. Design: A randomized crossover design was incorporated in which 20 girls [mean 6 SEM age: 19 6 1 y;...
Authors: Steve Douglas, Heather Hoertel, Heather Leidy, Laura Ortinau

Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents: A randomized controlled trial

submitted by: petersonca
Background: Obese adolescents are at a greater risk for vitamin D deficiency because the vitamin is thought to be sequestered by excess adipose tissue. Poor vitamin D status has been associated with a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and/or type 2 diabetes in both adults and adolescents. Objective: To determine in obese adolescents the efficacy and safety of 4000 IU/day of vitamin D3; and if subsequent increased circulating concentrations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH)D] are...
Authors: Anthony Belenchia, Aneesh Tosh, Laura Hillman, Catherine Peterson

Objective Assessment of Obesogenic Environments in Youth: Geographic Information System Methods and Spatial Findings from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids Study

submitted by: Lawrence Frank
Background GIS-based walkability measures designed to explain active travel fail to capture “playability” and proximity to healthy food. These constructs should be considered when measuring potential child obesogenic environments. Purpose The aim of this study was to describe the development of GIS-based multicomponent physical activity and nutrition environment indicators of child obesogenic environments in the San Diego and Seattle regions. Methods Block group–level...
Authors: Lawrence Frank, Brian E. Saelens, James Chapman, James Sallis, Jacqueline Kerr, Karen Glanz, Sarah C. Couch, Vincent Learnihan, Chuan Zhou, Trina Colburn, Kelli L. Cain

Vitamin D supplementation and calcium absorption during caloric restriction: a randomized double blind trial

submitted by: shapses
Background: Weight loss (WL) is associated with a decrease in calcium absorption and may be one mechanism that induces bone loss with weight reduction. Objective: Because vitamin D supplementation has been shown to increase true fractional calcium absorption (TFCA), the goal of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin D during WL or weight maintenance (WM). Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind 6-wk study was conducted in 82 postmenopausal women [BMI (in kg/...
Authors: Sue Shapses, Deeptha Sukumar, Stephen Schneider, Yvette Schlussel, Robert Sherrell, M Paul Field, Hasina Ambia-Sobhan

Is there a dose-response relation of dietary glycemic load to risk of type 2 diabetes? Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

submitted by: Geoffrey Livesey
Background: Although much is known about the association between dietary glycemic load (GL) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), prospective cohort studies have not consistently shown a positive dose-response relation. Objective: We performed a comprehensive examination of evidence on the dose response that links GL to T2D and sources of heterogeneity among all prospective cohort studies on healthy adults available in the literature. Design: We conducted a systematic review of all prospective...
Authors: Geoffrey Livesey, Richard Taylor, Helen Livesey, Simin Liu

High dietary intake of saturated fat associated with reduced semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population

submitted by: 2002-1001-6438
BACKGROUND: Saturated fat intake has been associated with both cardiovascular disease and cancer risk, and a newly published study found an association between saturated fat intake and a lower sperm concentration in infertile men. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake and semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, men were recruited when they were examined to determine their...
Authors: Tina Kold Jensen

Being Overweight or Obese Is Associated with Lower Prevalence of Anemia among Colombian Women of Reproductive Age

submitted by: kasiek
Overweight and micronutrient deficiencies have manifested in the same individuals. This study investigated the association among iron deficiency (ID), anemia, and weight status among nonpregnant Colombian females aged 13-49 y (n = 3267). Data from the 2005 National Survey of the Nutrition Situation were used. The prevalence of ID (plasma ferritin <12.0 ?g/L; individuals with CRP >0.012 g/L excluded) and anemia (altitude-adjusted hemoglobin <120 g/L) was estimated separately. The...
Authors: Katarzyna Kordas, Zulma Centeno, Helena Pachon, Ana Zulema Soto

Multivitamin-multimineral supplementation and mortality: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

submitted by: mpase
Background: Multivitamins are the most commonly used supplement in the developed world. Recent epidemiological findings suggest multivitamin use increases the risk of mortality. Objectives: We aimed to determine whether multivitamin-multimineral treatment, used for primary or secondary prevention, increases the risk of mortality in independently living adults. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Multiple electronic databases were systematically searched...
Authors: Helen Macpherson, Andrew Pipingas, Matthew Pase

School Lunch Waste Among Middle School Students: Nutrients Consumed and Costs

submitted by: Jfwcohen
Background: The National School Lunch Program has been guided by modest nutrient standards, and the palatability of meals, which drives consumption, receives inadequate attention. School food waste can have important nutritional and cost implications for policymakers, students, and their families. Purpose: Nutrient losses and economic costs associated with school meal waste were examined. The study also assessed if school foods served were valid proxies for foods consumed by students....
Authors: Juliana Cohen, Scott Richardson, S. Bryn Austin, Christina Economos, Eric Rimm