biosights: February 17, 2014 - Shroom takes embryos to new dimensions

submitted by: JCB
During development, the planar polarized distribution of Rho kinase and Myosin II helps Drosophila germ-band cells intercalate so that the embryo extends along its anterior-posterior axis. Simoes et al. reveal how Rho GTPase and the actin-binding protein Shroom combine to regulate the localization of Rho kinase and actomyosin contractility during axis elongation. This biosights episode presents the paper by Simoes et al. from the February 17, 2014, issue of The Journal of Cell Biology and...

Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 polymorphisms are associated with components of energy balance in the CODING study

submitted by: bfontain
BACKGROUND: The melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that regulates energy balance and body composition in animal models. Inconsistent effects of MCHR1 polymorphisms on energy homeostasis in humans may partly be attributable to environmental factors. OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs133073, rs133074, rs9611386, and rs882111) in the MCHR1 gene on body composition as well as energy-related lifestyle...
Authors: Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson, James Thorburn, Anne Gregory, Hongwei Zhang, Guang Sun

biosights: January 20, 2014 - Motors give a new twist to platelet activation

submitted by: JCB
The discoid shape of resting platelets is maintained by a peripheral ring of bundled microtubules called the marginal band. Diagouraga et al. reveal that, upon platelet activation, the motor protein dynein slides microtubules apart, inducing marginal band coiling and the conversion of platelets to a spherical shape. This biosights episode presents the paper by Diagouraga et al. from the January 20, 2014, issue of The Journal of Cell Biology and includes an interview with senior author Karin...

"On the Way to a Holding Ontology", Jakob Voß/CarstenKlee

submitted by: SWIB

On the Way to a Holding Ontology

Association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and obesity development at ages 5 and 7y: a prospective cohort study of 656 children from the Faroe Islands

submitted by:
Abstract Background: Chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities may act as obesogens and interfere with the body's natural weight-control mechanisms, especially if exposure occurs during prenatal life. Objective: We examined the association between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and subsequent obesity at 5 and 7 y of age. Design: From 1997 to 2000, 656 pregnant Faroese women were recruited. PCB and DDE were...
Authors: Jeanett L Tang-Péronard, Berit L Heitmann, Helle R Andersen, Ulrike Steuerwald, Philippe Grandjean, Pál Weihe, Tina K Jensen

biosights: Decemeber 23, 2013 - Tumor cells WASH away the extracellular matrix

submitted by: JCB
Tumor cells invade through extracellular matrices by forming actin-rich structures called invadopodia, which contain the transmembrane matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP. Monteiro et al. reveal that the Arp2/3 activating protein WASH works with the exocyst complex to deliver MT1-MMP from late endosomes to the invadopodial plasma membrane. This biosights episode presents the paper by Monteiro et al. from the December 23, 2013, issue of The Journal of Cell Biology and includes an interview with...