biosights: February 17, 2014 - Shroom takes embryos to new dimensions

submitted by: JCB
During development, the planar polarized distribution of Rho kinase and Myosin II helps Drosophila germ-band cells intercalate so that the embryo extends along its anterior-posterior axis. Simoes et al. reveal how Rho GTPase and the actin-binding protein Shroom combine to regulate the localization of Rho kinase and actomyosin contractility during axis elongation. This biosights episode presents the paper by Simoes et al. from the February 17, 2014, issue of The Journal of Cell Biology and...

Novel cell-based and materials science approach to target Glioblastoma brain cancer tumors

submitted by: nsf

Stefan Bossmann and Deryl Troyer at Kansas State University are developing a novel materials treatment method for persons with brain cancer that uses a type of white blood cell to deliver anticancer drugs to particularly virulent brain tumors.

biosights: January 20, 2014 - Motors give a new twist to platelet activation

submitted by: JCB
The discoid shape of resting platelets is maintained by a peripheral ring of bundled microtubules called the marginal band. Diagouraga et al. reveal that, upon platelet activation, the motor protein dynein slides microtubules apart, inducing marginal band coiling and the conversion of platelets to a spherical shape. This biosights episode presents the paper by Diagouraga et al. from the January 20, 2014, issue of The Journal of Cell Biology and includes an interview with senior author Karin...

Silencing the Menkes Copper-Transporting ATPase (Atp7a) Gene in Rat Intestinal Epithelial (IEC-6) Cells Increases Iron Flux via Transcriptional Induction of Ferroportin 1 (Fpn1)

submitted by: jfcollins
The Menkes copper-transporting ATPase (Atp7a) gene is induced in rat duodenum during iron deficiency, consistent with copper accumulation in the intestinal mucosa and liver. To test the hypothesis that ATP7A influences intestinal iron metabolism, the Atp7a gene was silenced in rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology. Perturbations in intracellular copper homeostasis were noted in knockdown cells, consistent with the dual roles of ATP7A in pumping...
Authors: Sukru Gulec, James F. Collins

biosights: Decemeber 23, 2013 - Tumor cells WASH away the extracellular matrix

submitted by: JCB
Tumor cells invade through extracellular matrices by forming actin-rich structures called invadopodia, which contain the transmembrane matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP. Monteiro et al. reveal that the Arp2/3 activating protein WASH works with the exocyst complex to deliver MT1-MMP from late endosomes to the invadopodial plasma membrane. This biosights episode presents the paper by Monteiro et al. from the December 23, 2013, issue of The Journal of Cell Biology and includes an interview with...

biosights: November 25, 2013 - Caspases work as branch managers

submitted by: JCB
When a growing axon nears its target, it arborizes, or branches, to form numerous synaptic connections. Campbell and Okamoto reveal that localized caspase activation downstream of Slit-Robo signaling promotes arbor dynamics and restricts arbor growth. This biosights episode presents the paper by Campbell and Okamoto from the November 25, 2013, issue of The Journal of Cell Biology and includes an interview with lead author Douglas Campbell (formerly at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute,...