Diet, microbiota, and microbial metabolites in colon cancer risk in rural Africans and African Americans

submitted by: sjokeefe
Background: Epidemiologic studies have suggested that most cases of sporadic colon cancer can be attributed to diet. The recognition that colonic microbiota have a major influence on colonic health suggests that they might mediate colonic carcinogenesis. Objective: To examine the hypothesis that the influence of diet on colon cancer risk is mediated by the microbiota through their metabolites, we measured differences in colonic microbes and their metabolites in African Americans with a...
Authors: Junhai Ou, Franck Carbonero, Erwin G Zoetendal, James P DeLany, Mei Wang, Keith Newton, H Rex Gaskins, Stephen JD O’Keefe

biosights: June 10, 2013 - Netrin Throws Anchor Cells into the Breach

submitted by: JCB
Cell invasion through basement membranes is crucial for both normal development and cancer metastasis but relatively little is known about the process because it is difficult to observe in vivo. By imaging the invasion of anchor cells during C. elegans development, Hagedorn et al. reveal that, after invadopodia-like structures form an initial breach in the basement membrane, localized netrin signaling helps generate a stable invasive protrusion that widens the gap and directs the cell across...

MWV Episode 72 - Jonathan Eisen - Evolvability, the Built Environment and Open Science

submitted by: MicrobeWorld
Jonathan Eisen is an evolutionary biologist, currently working at University of California, Davis and is the academic editor-in-chief of the open-access journal PLoS Biology. On this episode, Jonathan talks about "evolvability," the probability that organisms can invent new functions. To do this, he has been using genome data in conjunction with experimental information to try and understand the mechanisms by which new functions have originated. Another area of interest for Eisen is the...

biosights: May 13, 2013 - Ventral lamellipodia plug the gaps

submitted by: JCB
When leukocytes enter or exit the blood stream, they leave small wounds both in and between the vascular endothelial cells, which must be quickly repaired so that the endothelium can maintain its barrier function. Martinelli et al. reveal that wounding causes a loss of tension in endothelial cells, inducing the formation of ventral lamellipodia that close the holes left by transmigrating leukocytes. This biosights episode presents the paper by Martinelli et al. from the April 29, 2013, issue...

Bacterial Aerotaxis

submitted by: mhrussel

Aerotaxis is the movement of an organism in response to environmental oxygen concentrations, either towards or away from a given oxygen concentration. Many bacteria are microaerophilic meaning they prefer environments with low oxygen content. Higher or lower O2 content than the optimum are considered a repellant and bacteria will navigate towards the optimum. This animation is an overview of studying aerotaxis in motile bacteria.

Glycolysis animation

submitted by: mhrussel

Glycolysis is a determined sequence of ten reactions involving ten intermediate compounds (one of the steps involves two intermediates). The intermediates provide entry points to glycolysis. This animation features the 3D protein structures of all ten enzymes as well as the enzyme substrate and products.