The Importance of Marine Picoeukaryotes and the Search for Lost Time

submitted by: dougramsey
Unicellular eukaryotes are responsible for a massive amount of photosynthetic carbon fixation in marine systems. The smallest among these fall within the “pico” size fraction (<2 micrometers in diameter), are broadly distributed – from coastal to open-ocean environments – and are highly diverse. Picoeukaryotes contribute a significant proportion of the biomass and primary production within this size fraction, often rivaling their cyanobacterial counterparts Prochlorococcus and...

Metagenomic Comparison of the Microbial Hindgut Communities in Drywood- and Grass-Feeding Termites

submitted by: dougramsey
Falk Warnecke, Microbial Ecology Program, Joint Genome Institute, DOE Co-authors: Natalia Ivanova, Martin Allgaier, Nikos Kyrpides, Rudolf Scheffrahn, and Phil Hugenholtz Termites are highly efficient in degrading lignocellulosic biomass. In a recent metagenomic study we showed for the first time that microbes inhabiting the termite hindgut encode hundreds of carbohydrate-active enzymes, e.g. glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) and tens of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) and by implication are...

Efficient Metagenomics Data Processing: Pitfalls and Solutions

submitted by: dougramsey
Nikos Kyrpides, Joint Genome Institute Co-authors: Kostas Mavrommatis, Natalia Ivanova Metagenomics has emerged as a powerful tool for exploration of the functional capabilities of microbial communities regardless of the ability of their members to grow in pure culture. However, little is known for the efficacy of the methods used to process these datasets. Further more, sequencing of environmental genomic DNA usually results in large, highly fragmented datasets representing a significant...

A Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) and the Search for the Dark Matter of the Biological Universe

submitted by: dougramsey
There is a glaring gap in microbial genome sequence availability – the currently available genome sequences show a highly biased phylogenetic distribution compared to the extent of microbial diversity known today. This bias has resulted in major limitations in our knowledge of microbial genome complexity and our understanding of the evolution, physiology and metabolic capacity of microbes. Although there have been small efforts in sequencing genomes from across the tree of life for...

The Human Oral Microbiome by Floyd Dewhirst, Harvard University

submitted by: dougramsey
The human oral cavity is a diverse habitat that contains approximately bacterial 600 predominant species. The oral microbiome is comprised of 44% named species, 12% isolates representing unnamed species, and 44% phylotypes known only from 16S rRNA based cloning studies. Species from 11 phyla have been identified: Firmicutes (211), Bacteroidetes (106), Proteobacteria (99), Actinobacteria (64), Spirochaetes (49), Fusobacteria (29), TM7 (12), Synergistetes (10), Chlamydiae (1), Chloroflexi (1)...

Apparency and Actuality

submitted by: hsrikm
Apparency and actuality are discussed with respect to science, genetics, evolution, cognition and perception. Rules for a (sub)set of actual/allowable sets of entities and objects from a total set that is based on differences and contrasts extracted from perceptual experience of the world elucidate tenable combinations/recombinations from a total of the transparent(history/past dependant) and the apparent as they can be construed to comprise the actual/real faces of perception. The elements...