Genomic and Genetic Insight into Gut Microbiota Function and Manipulation

submitted by: dougramsey
Trillions of microbes live in our digestive tract and influence our biology in profound and diverse ways. Several diseases, including obesity and inflammatory bowel diseases, have been associated with large-scale shifts in microbiota composition. The ability to address basic questions concerning community function and plasticity are fundamental to understanding the extent of causal relationships between host biology and microbiota perturbations, and whether the microbiota is a viable...

Metagenomics 2008 Day 1 Panel Discussion: A Community Vision

submitted by: dougramsey

The first day at Metagenomics 2008 is discussed in a Q & A panel session at the end of the day.

Efficient Metagenomics Data Processing: Pitfalls and Solutions

submitted by: dougramsey
Nikos Kyrpides, Joint Genome Institute Co-authors: Kostas Mavrommatis, Natalia Ivanova Metagenomics has emerged as a powerful tool for exploration of the functional capabilities of microbial communities regardless of the ability of their members to grow in pure culture. However, little is known for the efficacy of the methods used to process these datasets. Further more, sequencing of environmental genomic DNA usually results in large, highly fragmented datasets representing a significant...

Targeted Gene Identification from Short Gene Fragments in Metagenome and their Use in Biogeochemical Studies

submitted by: dougramsey
Metagenomics allows for a new approach to studying biogeochemical processes in an environment, by giving an approximation of a community’s biogeochemical potential through the genes involved in a given process. Lipid biomarkers are well suited to this kind of approach because they are important for a number of biogeochemical questions and some have well studied biosynthetic pathways. One important class of lipid biomarkers, triterpenoids, were investigated in a new metagenomic sample that...

Integrated Information System for Genomic and Metagenomic Data Analysis at National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)

submitted by: dougramsey
Recent advances in biotechnology and bioinformatics has provided a flood of genomic data and tremendous growth in the number of associated data sets. Sequencing projects now include draft assemblies, complete genomes, comparative genomics, and metagenomics where genetic material is sequenced directly from environmental samples. The NCBI provides integrated systems for data storage, retrieval, and analysis. GenBank, an archival database of DNA sequences, contains consensus sequences assembled...

Towards Computer Assisted Markup of Data: Habitat-Lite

submitted by: dougramsey
Lynette Hirschman, The MITRE Corporation Co-authors: Scott Mardis, Cheryl Clark, Kevin Cohen Habitat-Lite (aka EnvO-Lite) is a set of structured terms designed to facilitate capture of high-level information about habitat and sample source metadata for genomics and metagenomics samples. It is designed to be light-weight and compact. Habitat-Lite terms are drawn from the full EnvO ontology and are made avail able by the EnvO Consortium in the EnvO-Lite-GSC OBO file. Habitat-Lite terms include...

Electromicrobiology: Novel Approaches for Investigating Charge Transfer and Energy Transformation in Microbial Systems

submitted by: dougramsey
Respiratory microorganisms capture energy for growth and maintenance as they transfer electrons from energy sources to appropriate electron acceptors. Controlling the availability of electron donor and acceptor pairs provides opportunities for investigating fundamental aspects of energy transformation and distribution in defined and un defined microbial cultures. For example, we have noted that in all bacteria investigated to date electron acceptor limitation prompts the production of...

How Might S Geno and M Geno Work Together for Getting to Biological Function?

submitted by: dougramsey

Metagenomics 2008 Discussion/Breakouts: Moderator: John Wooley, Chair, Metagenomics 2008, et. al.

The Human Oral Microbiome by Floyd Dewhirst, Harvard University

submitted by: dougramsey
The human oral cavity is a diverse habitat that contains approximately bacterial 600 predominant species. The oral microbiome is comprised of 44% named species, 12% isolates representing unnamed species, and 44% phylotypes known only from 16S rRNA based cloning studies. Species from 11 phyla have been identified: Firmicutes (211), Bacteroidetes (106), Proteobacteria (99), Actinobacteria (64), Spirochaetes (49), Fusobacteria (29), TM7 (12), Synergistetes (10), Chlamydiae (1), Chloroflexi (1)...

The Rapidly Growing Standards Landscape in ‘omics by Susanna Sansone, European Bioinformatics Institute

submitted by: dougramsey
As the size and complexity of scientific datasets and the corresponding information stores grow, reporting standards are playing an increasingly active role. Interopera bility among standards, however, becomes pivotal for the development of software applications. Here we present the key synergistic standards activities in the omics domain and the motivation for, an overview of, the BioInvestigation Index infrastructure at the EBI. The marriage of conventional methods with (meta)genomics,...