Scientific Decision Making, Policy Decisions and the Obesity Pandemic

submitted by: WentzMR

Dr. James Hébert, Professor of Epidemiology from the University of South Carolina in Columbia, SC, discusses his article appearing in the June 2013 issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, which clarifies the definition of obesity and the measurement of risk factors in an attempt to develop study designs appropriate to treat the alarming obesity pandemic. Available at: http://tinyurl.com/dylndrt

The syntax of sin taxes: to improve physical, social, and fiscal health

submitted by: WentzMR

Dr. Michael Joyner, an Anesthesiologist and Physiologist at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, discusses his article appearing in the June 2013 issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, where he proposes the implementation of sin taxes on smoking, alcohol, fat, and sugar as an effective means to reduce health care costs and combat obesity. Available at: http://tinyurl.com/d4cjgkr

Public Reactions to Obesity-Related Health Campaigns A Randomized Controlled Trial

submitted by: AdamChiara
Background: Despite numerous obesity-related health campaigns throughout the U.S., public perceptions of these campaigns have not been formally assessed. In addition, several recent publicized campaigns have come under criticism in the popular media for reinforcing stigmatization of obese people. Thus, research in this area is warranted. Purpose: To systematically assess public perceptions of recent obesity-related public health campaigns in the U.S. Design: RCT. Setting/participants:...
Authors: Joerg Luedicke, MS, Jamie Lee Peterson, MA, Rebecca Puhl, PhD

Obesity Control in Latin American and U.S. Latinos A Systematic Review

submitted by: ibach
Context: Latinos are the largest and fastest-growing ethnically diverse group in the U.S.; they are also the most overweight. Mexico is now second to the U.S. in experiencing the worst epidemic of obesity in the world. Objectives of this study were to (1) conduct a systematic review of obesity- relatedinterventionstargetingLatinoslivingintheU.S.andLatinAmericaand(2)developevidence- based recommendations to inform culturally relevant strategies targeting obesity. Evidence acquisition:...
Authors: Christina K. Holub, John P. Elder, Elva M. Arredondo, Simón Barquera, Christina M. Eisenberg, Luz María Sánchez Romero, Juan Rivera, Felipe Lobelo, Eduardo J. Simoes

Weight loss, weight maintenance, and adaptive thermogenesis

submitted by: stefancamps
Background: Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by adaptive thermogenesis, ie, a disproportional or greater than expected reduction of resting metabolic rate (RMR). Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether adaptive thermogenesis is sustained during weight maintenance after weight loss. Design: Subjects were 22 men and 69 women [mean 6 SD age: 40 6 9 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 31.9 6 3.0]. They followed a very-low-energy diet for 8 wk, followed by a...
Authors: Stefan Camps, Sanne Verhoef, Klaas Westerterp

Beneficial effects of a higher-protein breakfast on the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals controlling energy intake regulation in overweight/obese, “breakfast-skipping,” late-adolescent girls

submitted by: hurstn
Background: Breakfast skipping is a common dietary habit practiced among adolescents and is strongly associated with obesity. Objective: The objective was to examine whether a high-protein (HP) compared with a normal-protein (NP) breakfast leads to daily improvements in appetite, satiety, food motivation and reward, and evening snacking in overweight or obese breakfast-skipping girls. Design: A randomized crossover design was incorporated in which 20 girls [mean 6 SEM age: 19 6 1 y;...
Authors: Steve Douglas, Heather Hoertel, Heather Leidy, Laura Ortinau

Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents: A randomized controlled trial

submitted by: petersonca
Background: Obese adolescents are at a greater risk for vitamin D deficiency because the vitamin is thought to be sequestered by excess adipose tissue. Poor vitamin D status has been associated with a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and/or type 2 diabetes in both adults and adolescents. Objective: To determine in obese adolescents the efficacy and safety of 4000 IU/day of vitamin D3; and if subsequent increased circulating concentrations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH)D] are...
Authors: Anthony Belenchia, Aneesh Tosh, Laura Hillman, Catherine Peterson

Theme: Geographic Information Systems and Childhood Obesity

submitted by: blytton
There is no single solution to the childhood obesity epidemic, but there is a need for transdisciplinary collaboration and approaches that consider the potential mechanisms that promote or reduce obesity at all levels of enquiry, from cells to society. In this theme issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, we focus on place (obesogenic and leptogenic environments), specifically the use of GIS, related technologies, and spatial analytical methods in the study of childhood...
Authors: Stephen A. Matthews, Celeste Marie Torio

Objective Assessment of Obesogenic Environments in Youth: Geographic Information System Methods and Spatial Findings from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids Study

submitted by: Lawrence Frank
Background GIS-based walkability measures designed to explain active travel fail to capture “playability” and proximity to healthy food. These constructs should be considered when measuring potential child obesogenic environments. Purpose The aim of this study was to describe the development of GIS-based multicomponent physical activity and nutrition environment indicators of child obesogenic environments in the San Diego and Seattle regions. Methods Block group–level...
Authors: Lawrence Frank, Brian E. Saelens, James Chapman, James Sallis, Jacqueline Kerr, Karen Glanz, Sarah C. Couch, Vincent Learnihan, Chuan Zhou, Trina Colburn, Kelli L. Cain

Vitamin D supplementation and calcium absorption during caloric restriction: a randomized double blind trial

submitted by: shapses
Background: Weight loss (WL) is associated with a decrease in calcium absorption and may be one mechanism that induces bone loss with weight reduction. Objective: Because vitamin D supplementation has been shown to increase true fractional calcium absorption (TFCA), the goal of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin D during WL or weight maintenance (WM). Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind 6-wk study was conducted in 82 postmenopausal women [BMI (in kg/...
Authors: Sue Shapses, Deeptha Sukumar, Stephen Schneider, Yvette Schlussel, Robert Sherrell, M Paul Field, Hasina Ambia-Sobhan