Despite impressive employment gains in many fields of science, women remain underrepresented in fields requiring intensive use
of mathematics. Here we discuss three potential explanations for women’s underrepresentation: (a) male–female mathematical
and spatial ability gaps, (b) sex discrimination, and (c) sex differences in career preferences and lifestyle choices. Synthesizing
findings from psychology, endocrinology, sociology, economics, and education leads to the conclusion that,...
Authors: Stephen Ceci, Wendy Williams