The Dynamic Bacterial Cell: Part 2: Escalating Infectious Disease Threat (39:37)

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Many antibiotics, which we have taken foregranted since the 1950's, are now becoming ineffective because bacteria have developed ways of acquiring resistance. The development of new antibiotics is lagging behind the loss of the old ones in this race to combat infectious disease. Simultaneously, there is an increase in infectious diseases around the world due to over population, globalization and urbanization. This results in a lethal combination of emerging diseases and loss of effective...

Host-Pathogen Interaction and Human Disease: Part 2: Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Cancer (48:57)

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Helicobacter pylori lives in the human stomach. It causes gastritis, ulcer disease and even gastric cancer. Some H. pylori can inject a protein, CagA, into gastric epithelial cells. CagA interacts with the tight junctions that bind cells together and with signaling molecules affecting motility and proliferation. CagA is associated with ulcer disease and cancer but we don't understand how it works to favor malignancy. Not long ago in history most humans carried H. pylori ; the incidence of...

The Dynamic Bacterial Cell: Part 1: Dynamics of Bacterial Chromosome Organization, Segregation, and Cytokinesis (34:32)

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Most bacterial cells have their genes arranged in a single circle of DNA. The circle of DNA plus some attached proteins is referred to as the bacterial chromosome. Up until quite recently, it was thought that the chromosome in the tiny bacteria cell resembled a tangled ball of yarn. It is now known that multiple factors cooperate to condense DNA into a highly dynamic assembly of supercoiled loops. Although there is variability in the lower levels of chromosome structure, the global...

Host-Pathogen Interaction and Human Disease: Part 1: What is a Pathogen? Trying to Understand Human Biology by the Study of Pathogenic Bacteria (37:48)

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Ninety percent of the cells humans carry are microbes. Only a few of the bacteria we encounter are pathogenic and can cause disease. Pathogens possess the inherent ability to cross anatomic barriers or breach other host defenses that limit the microbes that make up our normal flora. A significant part of human evolution has gone into developing ways to thwart microbial intrusion. In turn, microbes have come up with clever ways to avoid and circumvent host defenses but human — microbe...