Deactivation Mechanisms of Rod Phototransduction (The Cogan Lecture)

submitted by: arvojenny
The absorption of photons in rods and cones of the retina activate homologous biochemical signaling cascades that lead to the electrical changes that subserve the first steps in vision. Persistent activity of the cascade interferes with the ability of the photoreceptor to signal the absorption of subsequent photons, ultimately limiting the photoreceptor’s sensitivity and temporal resolution. This article summarizes recent work on transgenic and knockout mouse rods that have revealed the...
Authors: Marie Burns

Cell Communication Mechanisms in the Vertebrate Retina (The Proctor Lecture)

submitted by: arvojenny
The vertebrate retina has a unique position within the panoply of the nervous system networks: our understanding of its complex circuitry of interacting neurons and glia has become the gold standard of our current knowledge of network operations. This presentation is about work from my laboratory that contributed to some of the concepts that support our contemporary views of the functional retina. Early in the pursuit of retinal function, a vital issue was that of understanding the...
Authors: Robert Miller

Through The Eyes of a Child: Understanding Retinopathy through ROP (The Friedenwald Lecture)

submitted by: arvojenny
Retinopathy is a common cause of blindness in all age groups. There are 15 million people in the United States with age-related macular degeneration (AMD)—20% of those aged 65 to 74 years and 30% aged 74 years—and 1.6 million of those have neovascular (wet) AMD. In the working age population there are 20 million (7% of the population) with diabetes, and 50% of patients with diabetes mellitus have diabetic retinopathy (DR) after 25 years. In children, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)...
Authors: Lois Smith

The Ocular Surface: The Challenge to Enable and Protect Vision (The Friedenwald Lecture)

submitted by: arvojenny
The surface of the eye is an extraordinary and vital component of vision. The smooth, wet surface of the cornea is the major refractive surface of the visual system, which, along with corneal transparency, enables light to proceed through the lens and onto the retina for photoreceptor activation. The presence of the smooth, wet refractive ocular surface required for vision comes, however, at a cost. Unlike all other wetsurfaced epithelia of the body, the ocular surface is directly exposed to...
Authors: Ilene Gipson

Cellular and Functional Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Retina (The Cogan Lecture)

submitted by: arvojenny
An imaging modality that allows for fast, simultaneous, noninvasive probing of both three-dimensional (3D) cellular resolution retinal morphology and depth-resolved function could substantially improve the early diagnosis of various retinal diseases that are the leading causes of blindness worldwide and could contribute to a better understanding of retinal pathogenesis and enhanced therapy monitoring. In addition to user friendliness, reliability, and cost, the key technological parameters...
Authors: Wolfgang Drexler

A variant of the HTRA1 gene increases susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration

submitted by: KuoOffice
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible vision loss in the developed world and has a strong genetic predisposition. A locus at human chromosome 10q26 affects the risk of AMD, but the precise gene(s) have not been identified. We genotyped 581 AMD cases and 309 normal controls in a Caucasian cohort in Utah. We demonstrate that a single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs11200638, in the promoter region of HTRA1 is the most likely causal variant for AMD at 10q26...
Authors: Kang Zhang

L-DOPA Is an Endogenous Ligand for OA1

submitted by: medtv
Albinism is a genetic defect characterized by a loss of pigmentation. The neurosensory retina, which is not pigmented, exhibits pathologic changes secondary to the loss of pigmentation in the retina pigment epithelium (RPE). How the loss of pigmentation in the RPE causes developmental defects in the adjacent neurosensory retina has not been determined, but offers a unique opportunity to investigate the interactions between these two important tissues. One of the genes that causes albinism...
Authors: Lopez Vm, Decatur Cl, Stamer Wd, Lynch Rm, Mckay Bs

I-DOPA is an Endogenous for OA1

submitted by: medtv

Brian S. McKay; Vanessa M. Lopez; Christina L. Decatur; W. Daniel Stamer; Ronald M. Lynch