Very Brief Intro to Microbes

submitted by: dpearson

R Manroe, CPH Teacher, gives a very brief intro about microbes / micro organisms. This video is a demo of possibilities of what might be used as part of a MicroBlitz booth.

"Reading and Writing the Genetic Code"- Craig Venter @ '09 DOE JGI User Meeting

submitted by: JGI

Craig Venter (JCVI) keynote talk for DOE JGI '09 User Meeting on March 27, 2009.

Tuberculosis: A Persistent Threat to Global Health - Part 4: Targeting M. tuberculosis Carbon Metabolism In Vivo (26:12)

submitted by: video_collector
All pathogens must acquire and assimilate nutrients from their hosts in order to grow and multiply -- our tissues are literally their food -- yet surprisingly little is known about this fundamental aspect of the pathogenic lifestyle. Accumulating evidence suggests that M. tuberculosis might utilize fatty acids as its principal carbon and energy source during infection. The fourth part of this lecture describes work in our laboratory that is focused on identifying the metabolic pathways that...

Tuberculosis: A Persistent Threat to Global Health - Part 3: Phenotypic Heterogeneity and Antibiotic Tolerance (27:15)

submitted by: video_collector
The principal obstacle to successful treatment of tuberculosis is the lengthy duration of current regimens, which require administration of multiple drugs for 6-9 months. The requirement for prolonged therapy is attributed to sub-populations of bacillary "persisters" that are refractory to antimicrobials. The persisters are not drug-resistant in the conventional (heritable) sense and it is a mystery why they are spared whilst their genetically identical siblings are killed. The third part of...

Tuberculosis: A Persistent Threat to Global Health - Part 2: Tools for Tuberculosis Control: Not Just a Problem of Implementation (28:18)

submitted by: video_collector
Tuberculosis remains one of the most important causes of human disease and death despite the introduction of vaccination in 1921 and chemotherapy in 1952. Although these interventions are inexpensive and widely available their impact is limited. The effectiveness of vaccination is unclear; in clinical trials, the protection conferred by vaccination has been variable and generally poor. Although chemotherapy can be highly effective, multiple drugs must be administered for 6-9 months to...

Single molecule analyses of DNA in environmental microbes

submitted by: dougramsey
Comprehensive characterization of genomic composition in environmental microbial samples has been challenging, because the majority of microorganisms are difficult to culture. Additional challenges include a high degree of genetic diversity between and within species, various level of relative abundance and ubiquitous presence of cell-free DNA. Single cells or single molecules genomic assays hold great promise for tackling these challenges. Recent progresses in the developments of these...

Deep-Ocean Metagenomics: Comparative Investigations of Microbes Inhabiting Hydrothermal Vents and the Cold Deep Ocean

submitted by: dougramsey
The deep-ocean accounts for the majority of the water on our planet. While the cold deep-ocean is the dominant nutrient-challenged ecosystem, hydrothermal vents represent oases along tectonically active areas of the seafloor. Hydrothermal vents and the surrounding cold deep-ocean each support unique communities of microbes and viruses that have become highly adapted to local conditions. Through cycles of infection and host cell lysis, bacteriophages (viruses that specifically infect...

Metagenomic Comparison of the Microbial Hindgut Communities in Drywood- and Grass-Feeding Termites

submitted by: dougramsey
Falk Warnecke, Microbial Ecology Program, Joint Genome Institute, DOE Co-authors: Natalia Ivanova, Martin Allgaier, Nikos Kyrpides, Rudolf Scheffrahn, and Phil Hugenholtz Termites are highly efficient in degrading lignocellulosic biomass. In a recent metagenomic study we showed for the first time that microbes inhabiting the termite hindgut encode hundreds of carbohydrate-active enzymes, e.g. glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) and tens of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) and by implication are...

Genomic and Genetic Insight into Gut Microbiota Function and Manipulation

submitted by: dougramsey
Trillions of microbes live in our digestive tract and influence our biology in profound and diverse ways. Several diseases, including obesity and inflammatory bowel diseases, have been associated with large-scale shifts in microbiota composition. The ability to address basic questions concerning community function and plasticity are fundamental to understanding the extent of causal relationships between host biology and microbiota perturbations, and whether the microbiota is a viable...

A Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) and the Search for the Dark Matter of the Biological Universe

submitted by: dougramsey
There is a glaring gap in microbial genome sequence availability – the currently available genome sequences show a highly biased phylogenetic distribution compared to the extent of microbial diversity known today. This bias has resulted in major limitations in our knowledge of microbial genome complexity and our understanding of the evolution, physiology and metabolic capacity of microbes. Although there have been small efforts in sequencing genomes from across the tree of life for...