Single molecule analyses of DNA in environmental microbes

submitted by: dougramsey
Comprehensive characterization of genomic composition in environmental microbial samples has been challenging, because the majority of microorganisms are difficult to culture. Additional challenges include a high degree of genetic diversity between and within species, various level of relative abundance and ubiquitous presence of cell-free DNA. Single cells or single molecules genomic assays hold great promise for tackling these challenges. Recent progresses in the developments of these...

Deep-Ocean Metagenomics: Comparative Investigations of Microbes Inhabiting Hydrothermal Vents and the Cold Deep Ocean

submitted by: dougramsey
The deep-ocean accounts for the majority of the water on our planet. While the cold deep-ocean is the dominant nutrient-challenged ecosystem, hydrothermal vents represent oases along tectonically active areas of the seafloor. Hydrothermal vents and the surrounding cold deep-ocean each support unique communities of microbes and viruses that have become highly adapted to local conditions. Through cycles of infection and host cell lysis, bacteriophages (viruses that specifically infect...

Metagenomic Comparison of the Microbial Hindgut Communities in Drywood- and Grass-Feeding Termites

submitted by: dougramsey
Falk Warnecke, Microbial Ecology Program, Joint Genome Institute, DOE Co-authors: Natalia Ivanova, Martin Allgaier, Nikos Kyrpides, Rudolf Scheffrahn, and Phil Hugenholtz Termites are highly efficient in degrading lignocellulosic biomass. In a recent metagenomic study we showed for the first time that microbes inhabiting the termite hindgut encode hundreds of carbohydrate-active enzymes, e.g. glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) and tens of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) and by implication are...

Genomic and Genetic Insight into Gut Microbiota Function and Manipulation

submitted by: dougramsey
Trillions of microbes live in our digestive tract and influence our biology in profound and diverse ways. Several diseases, including obesity and inflammatory bowel diseases, have been associated with large-scale shifts in microbiota composition. The ability to address basic questions concerning community function and plasticity are fundamental to understanding the extent of causal relationships between host biology and microbiota perturbations, and whether the microbiota is a viable...

A Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) and the Search for the Dark Matter of the Biological Universe

submitted by: dougramsey
There is a glaring gap in microbial genome sequence availability – the currently available genome sequences show a highly biased phylogenetic distribution compared to the extent of microbial diversity known today. This bias has resulted in major limitations in our knowledge of microbial genome complexity and our understanding of the evolution, physiology and metabolic capacity of microbes. Although there have been small efforts in sequencing genomes from across the tree of life for...

New Sequencing Technologies at JGI and Applications in Bioenergy Research

submitted by: dougramsey
The US DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) is a high throughput sequencing and genomic research center involved in a myriad of sequencing projects. JGI’s major effort is the sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes of plants, microbes and environmental metagenomic samples of relevance to the DOE missions of carbon sequestration, bioremediation and energy production. Roche/454’s platform utilizes emulsion PCR for template amplification and pyrosequencing technology on high well-density...

SDSU Geological Sciences Webinar - Stephen T. Hasiotis

submitted by: tcarrasc
Ichnology for the 21st Century: Understanding the differences between continental and marine trace fossils, with implications to the diversity, distribution, and evolution of soil biota ; Department of Geological Sciences, San Diego State University, Seminar Series ; The study of ichnology has come a long way since its inception and it continues to evolve. In particular, progress is being made in understanding the implications of trace fossils in the continental realm and how they can be...

Germ Proof Your Kids MWV26

submitted by: MicrobeWorld
Parents are often presented with conflicting messages about germs and cleanliness. On the one hand, the news headlines warn us about dangerous "superbugs." On the other hand, there is growing concern that over-cleaning and excessive hygiene may weaken children's immune systems. Fortunately, there is real, vetted science available to help us understand how to best protect, without overprotecting, our kids. In episode 26 of MicrobeWorld Video, we talk with Dr. Harley Rotbart, author of Germ...

Bacteria Lab MWV25

submitted by: MicrobeWorld
What kinds of bacteria are growing in your sink or your refrigerator? How about on your keyboard at work? Does soap really reduce the amount of bacteria on your hands? Dr. Keith Lampel of the Food and Drug Administration helps citizen scientists discover the world of bacteria in and around us. Filmed at the Marian Koshland Science Museum in Washington, D.C., this two-part science lab kicked off with a hands-on activity in the museum to observe the invisible bacteria that are present...

Tuberculosis: A Persistent Threat to Global Health - Part 1: Tuberculosis: The Once and Future Plague (27:33)

submitted by: video_collector
Human population growth and urbanization have accelerated dramatically in recent centuries, providing unprecedented opportunities for microbes that use our bodies as vehicles for their own propagation and transmission. These conditions have led to the emergence of virulent new pathogens and the increased prevalence of "classic" scourges, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This tenacious microbe is transmitted via infectious aerosols produced by individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis....