Oocyte microtubules show their bias

submitted by: JCB
Several mRNAs are specifically transported to the anterior and posterior regions of Drosophila oocytes by microtubule-based motor proteins, but the organization of microtubules in these cells is unclear. Parton et al. reveal that oocyte microtubules are highly dynamic and display a PAR-1-dependent bias in polarity that facilitates transport of oskar mRNA to the oocyte posterior. This biosights episode presents the paper by Parton et al. from the July 11, 2011, issue of The Journal of Cell...

Tying the Golgi Ribbon to the Centrosome

submitted by: JCB
The mammalian Golgi apparatus exists as a continuous ribbon that clusters around the centrosome, but the significance of this organization is unclear. Hurtado et al. identify truncation mutants of the protein AKAP450 that differentially affect Golgi integrity and positioning, and use these mutants to investigate how the Golgi's organization contributes to its function in cell polarization, migration, and ciliogenesis. This biosights episode presents the paper by Hurtado et al. from the May...

Ouch! Single Cell Wound Repair in Drosophila Embryos

submitted by: JCB
Individual cells must quickly repair any disruptions to their plasma membrane. Abreu-Blanco et al. describe how early Drosophila embryos remodel their membranes and cytoskeleton to seal cell surface wounds. This biosights episode presents the paper by Abreu-Blanco et al. from the May 2, 2011 issue of The Journal of Cell Biology, and includes an interview with senior author Susan Parkhurst (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA). Produced by Caitlin Sedwick and Ben Short....

How the ER shapes up and ships out

submitted by: JCB
The endoplasmic reticulum is a complex network of interconnected membrane tubules and cisternae. West et al. use electron tomography to reveal the full diversity of ER structures present in budding yeast and how these structures pass from the mother cell into the bud. This biosights episode presents the paper by West et al. from the April 18, 2011, issue of The Journal of Cell Biology, and includes an interview with senior author Gia Voeltz (University of Colorado, Boulder). Produced by...

Nup133 is a Pore Relation to the Centrosome

submitted by: JCB
The centrosome remains closely associated with the nucleus throughout the cell cycle. Bolhy et al. reveal that the nucleoporin Nup133 anchors a network of proteins, including the motor protein dynein, that tethers centrosomes to nuclear pores in early prophase to assist the early stages of mitotic spindle assembly. This biosights episode presents the paper by Bolhy et al. from the March 7, 2011, issue of The Journal of Cell Biology, and includes an interview with senior author Valérie Doye...

Curbing the Killer Instinct

submitted by: JCB
Natural Killer (NK) cells distinguish target cells from surrounding healthy tissue by integrating signals from a variety of activating and inhibitory receptors. Abeyweera et al. reveal that signals from inhibitory receptors limit NK cell activity by remodeling contacts with potential targets and inducing NK cell retraction. This biosights episode presents the paper by Abeyweera et al. from the February 21st, 2011, issue of The Journal of Cell Biology, and includes an interview with senior...

Microtubules Keep Tumor Cells Breathing Easy

submitted by: JCB
The transcription factor HIF-1α is essential for a cell's response to low oxygen conditions. Carbonaro et al. demonstrate that production of HIF-1α protein is regulated by dynamic microtubules and that microtubule-targeting drugs shift HIF-1α mRNA into cytoplasmic P-bodies, where its translation is repressed by miRNAs. This biosights episode presents the paper by Carbonaro et al. from the January 10, 2011, issue of The Journal of Cell Biology, and includes an interview with authors Marisa...

The Spindle's Model Behavior

submitted by: JCB
Dynamic microtubules assemble into a steady state bipolar spindle structure but precisely how this is achieved is unclear. Loughlin et al. develop a computational model that predicts how a few key activities organize microtubules in Xenopus meiotic spindles. This biosights episode presents the paper by Loughlin et al. from the December 27, 2010 issue of The Journal of Cell Biology, and includes an interview with author François Nédélec (EMBL, Heidelberg, Germany). Produced by Caitlin...

Seeing organelles live in concert

submitted by: JCB
Centrosome positioning is thought to be important for both neuronal migration and axonogenesis. To investigate centrosome dynamics in vivo, Distel et al. develop a new method to simultaneously visualize multiple subcellular compartments in live zebrafish embryos. This biosights episode presents the paper by Distel et al. from the November 15, 2010 issue of The Journal of Cell Biology, and includes an interview with senior author Reinhard Köster (Helmholtz Zentrum, Munich, Germany). Produced...

Pulling centrosomes to the forward position

submitted by: JCB
Most migrating cells place their centrosome in front of the nucleus, facing the direction in which the cell is moving. Manneville et al. identify a signaling pathway that moves the centrosome into position by recruiting the motor protein dynein to leading edge microtubules. This biosights episode presents the paper by Manneville et al. from the November 1, 2010 issue of The Journal of Cell Biology, and includes an interview with senior author Sandrine Etienne-Manneville (Institut Pasteur,...