Functional reconstitution of NKT cells in HIV-1 infected individuals

submitted by: dzhoumda
A reduction in the generation of lung-homing TB-specific effector memory CD4 Th1 cells after HIV infection is a key factor in the increased risk of active TB disease. Natural killer T cells are an innate type of immune cells responsible for first line of anti-viral defense, which may “jump-start” the adaptive immune responses and regulate the Th1 versus Th2 differentiation of CD4 helper T cells, through their unique ability to activate antigen-presenting cells (e.g., DCs). The regulatory...

Adaptation to Human Populations Is Revealed by Within-Host Polymorphisms in HIV-1 and Hepatitis C Virus

submitted by: art
CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) perform a critical role in the immune control of viral infections, including those caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). As a result, genetic variation at CTL epitopes is strongly influenced by host-specific selection for either escape from the immune response, or reversion due to the replicative costs of escape mutations in the absence of CTL recognition. Under strong CTL-mediated selection, codon positions...
Authors: Art f. y Poon, Sergei l. kosakovsky Pond, Phil Bennett, Douglas d Richman, Andrew j. leigh Brown, Simon d. w Frost