: Increasing Incidence of Melanoma Among Young Adults: An Epidemiologic Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

submitted by: WentzMR

: Dr. Kurtis Reed, a Resident Physician in the Department of Dermatology at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, discusses his article appearing in the April 2012 issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings on a retrospective chart study using data from the Rochester Epidemiology Project that reveals a significant increase in the incidence of melanoma in young adults. Available at:
http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(12)00209-1/fulltext

Dietary flavonoid intakes and risk of type 2 diabetes in US men and women

submitted by: nwedick
BACKGROUND: Data from mechanistic studies support a beneficial effect of specific flavonoids on insulin sensitivity. However, few studies have evaluated the relation between intakes of different flavonoid subclasses and type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate whether dietary intakes of major flavonoid subclasses (ie, flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins) are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in US adults. DESIGN: We followed up a...
Authors: Nicole M Wedick, An Pan, Aedin Cassidy, Eric B Rimm, Laura Sampson, Bernard Rosner, Walter Willett, Walter Willett, Frank B Hu, Qi Sun, Rob M van Dam

Generation and acculturation status are associated with dietary intake and body weight in Mexican American adolescents

submitted by: jhliu
Mexican-American children are disproportionately affected by obesity. Data on how acculturation process influences diet and body weight among adolescents are limited. We used the data from the 1999-2004 NHANES, restricting to 2,286 Mexican American children between 12-19 years old. Acculturation was measured by generation status and language preference. Diet was assessed using 24-h diet recall. Multiple linear, Tobit, logistic, and quantile regression models were used. We found, after...
Authors: Jihong Liu, Y Chu, EA Frongillo, JC Probst

Vitamin D deficiency and mortality risk in the general population: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

submitted by: wbgrant
Background: Low vitamin D status may increase mortality risk. OBJECTIVE: We used nonparametric ("highest compared with lowest" categories) and parametric (>2 categories) statistical models to evaluate associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] serum concentrations and mortality in observational studies among general populations. DESIGN: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and reference lists for relevant articles. We included studies that contained data on relative risks (RRs)...
Authors: Armin Zittermann, Simona Iodice, Stefan Pilz, William B. Grant, Vincenzo Bagnardi, Sara Gandini

Correcting for Inflammation Changes Estimates of Iron Deficiency among Rural Kenyan Preschool Children

submitted by: ebogrant5
The assessment of iron status where infections are common is complicated by the effects of inflammation on iron indicators and in this study we compared approaches that adjust for this influence. Blood was collected in 680 children (aged 6–35 mo) and indicators of iron status [(hemoglobin (Hb), zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), ferritin, transferrin receptor (TfR), and TfR/ferritin index)] and subclinical inflammation [(the acute phase proteins (APP) C-reactive protein (CRP), and a-1-acid...
Authors: Frederick Grant, Parminder Suchdev, Rafael Flores-Ayala, Conrad Cole, Usha Ramakrishnan, Laird Ruth, Reynaldo Martorell

Retinol May Counteract the Negative Effect of Cadmium on Bone

submitted by: agnake
Cadmium and high vitamin A intake are both proposed risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD), but potential interactions have not been studied. Within the Women’s Health in the Lund Area, a population-based study in southern Sweden,wemeasured retinol in serumamong 606womenaged 54–64 y. Data onBMDwere measured byDXAat the distal forearm. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (bALP), and osteocalcin in serum and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and cadmium in urine were...
Authors: Thomas Lundh, Jonas Lidfeldt, Per Bjellerup, Staffan Skerfving, Helen Håkansson, Annette Engström, Göran Samsioe, Marie Vahter, Agneta Åkesson

"Home Smoking Bans Among U.S. Households with Children and Smokers" and "Association Between Smokefree Laws and Voluntary Smokefree-Home Rules"

submitted by: glantz
"Home Smoking Bans Among U.S. Households with Children and Smokers" Background: Public health campaigns have reduced the exposure of U.S. children to secondhand smoke at home; however, these may not have been equally effective across subgroups. Purpose: To examine prevalence of home smoking bans among U.S. households with both children and smokers, over time and by demographic subgroups. Methods: The Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) is a nationally...
Authors: Alice Mills, Martha White, John Pierce, Karen Messer, Kai wen Cheng, James Lightwood, Stanton Glantz

Adolescent dairy product consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women

submitted by: vmalik
Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention has generally focused on the identification of risk factors in adulthood. Dairy product consumption in adults has been associated with a lower risk of T2D. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the relation between dairy product consumption during adolescence and risk of T2D in adulthood. Design: We examined the incidence of T2D in relation to high school dairy product consumption within the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort. A total of...
Authors: Vasanti Malik, Qi Sun, Rob Van dam, Eric Rimm, Walter Willett, Bernard Rosner, Frank Hu

Vitamin D intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US men and women

submitted by: qisun
These powerpoint slides describe the background, objective, methods, main results, discussion, and conclusion of the article. Background: Although studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), evidence regarding whether vitamin D intake from foods or supplements is prospectively associated with lower CVD risk in healthy humans is limited and inconclusive. Objective: The objective was to comprehensively evaluate the associations between...
Authors: Joann Manson, Frank Hu, Edward Giovanucci, Eric Rimm, Ling Shi, Qi Sun, Kathryn Rexrode

Development of a Cardiovascular Risk Score for Use in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

submitted by: stella7
Summary measures of cardiovascular risk have long been used in public health, but few include nutritional predictors despite extensive evidence linking diet and heart disease. Study objectives were to develop and validate a novel risk score in a case-control study of myocardial infarction (MI) conducted in Costa Rica during 1994-2004. After restricting the data set to healthy participants (n = 1678), conditional logistic regression analyses modeled associations of lifestyle factors...
Authors: Stella Aslibekyan, Hannia Campos, Eric Loucks, Crystal Linkletter, Jose Ordovas, Ana Baylin