A diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli interacts with genotype to reduce discordance in plasma metabolite profiles through modulating mitochondrial function

submitted by: Andrew Chapple
Background: Observational and experimental studies suggest that diets rich in cruciferous vegetables and glucosinolates may reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: We tested the hypothesis that a 12-wk dietary intervention with high-glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli would modify biomarkers of CVD risk and plasma metabolite profiles to a greater extent than interventions with standard broccoli or peas. Design: Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 400 g...
Authors: Charlotte Armah, Maria Traka, Jack Dainty, Marianne Defernez, Astrid Janssens, Wing Leung, John Potter, Richard Mithen

Weight-loss diets in people with type 2 diabetes and renal disease: a randomized controlled trial of the effect of different dietary protein amounts

submitted by: Peter Clifton
ABSTRACT Background: Higher-protein weight-loss diets (defined as >25% of energy as protein) are not recommended for individuals with type 2 diabetes because of their potential adverse effect on renal function. Objective: We aimed to examine the effect of such diets on renal function over 12 mo in people with type 2 diabetes and early renal disease. Design: Overweight and obese people with type 2 diabetes were screened to identify those with an albumin:creatinine ratio from 3 to...
Authors: David Jesudason, Eva Pedersen, Peter Clifton

Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

submitted by: tom_witches
Background: It is currently unclear whether altering the carbohydrate-to-protein ratio of low-fat, energy-restricted diets augments weight loss and cardiometabolic risk markers. Objective: The objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that compared energy-restricted, isocaloric, high-protein, low-fat (HP) diets with standard-protein, low-fat (SP) diets on weight loss, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), satiety and appetite, and...
Authors: Thomas Wycherley, Lisa Moran, Peter Clifton, Manny Noakes, Grant Brinkworth

Ideal cardiovascular Health and Mortality: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

submitted by: WentzMR
Dr. Carl (Chip) Lavie, Professor of Medicine in the Department of Cardiovascular Diseases at the John Ochsner Heart & Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School and University of Queensland School of Medicine in New Orleans, LA, discusses his article coauthored with Dr. Enrique G. Artero and others, appearing in the October 2012 issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, where he reviews the 7 American Heart Association’s 2020 goals for ideal cardiovascular health as seen in a middle-aged,...

Greater whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and weight gain

submitted by: sarachacko
Whole-grain and high fiber intakes are routinely recommended for prevention of vascular diseases; however, there are no comprehensive and quantitative assessments of available data in humans. The aim of this study was to systematically examine longitudinal studies investigating whole-grain and fiber intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD), weight gain, and metabolic risk factors. We identified 45 prospective cohort studies and 21...
Authors: Sara A. Chacko, Eva Qing Ye, Elizabeth L. Chou, Matthew Kugizaki, Simin Liu

The Obesity Paradox, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Coronary Heart Disease

submitted by: WentzMR

Dr. Carl (Chip) Lavie, a cardiologist from Ochsner Clinic in New Orleans, LA, discusses an article appearing in the May 2012 issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, which provides further evidence for the validation of the obesity paradox. Previous study results may be misleading if fitnessof the patient is not also considered.
Available at: http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(12)00266-2/fulltext

Riboflavin offers a targeted strategy for managing hypertension in patients with the MTHFR 677TT genotype: a 4-y follow-up

submitted by: shaunaharte
ABSTRACT Background: We recently reported that the elevated blood pressure (BP) observed in patients with cardiovascular disease who are homozygous for the 677C/T polymorphism (TT genotype) in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) was responsive to supplementation with riboflavin—the cofactor for MTHFR. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of riboflavin on BP targeted at patients with the TT genotype 4 y after initial investigation, during...
Authors: Carol P Wilson, Mary Ward, Helene McNulty, J J Strain, Tom G Trouton, Geraldine Horigan, John Purvis, John M Scott

Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet study: effects on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins

submitted by: mikeroussell
Background: A Step I diet with lean beef compared with lean white meat both decrease LDL cholesterol. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated a low–saturated fatty acid (SFA) (<7% calories) diet that contains lean beef. Objective: We studied the effect on LDL cholesterol of cholesterol-lowering diets with varying amounts of lean beef [ie, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH): 28 g beef/d; Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet (BOLD): 113 g beef/d; and Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet...
Authors: Michael Roussell, Alison Hill, Trent Gaugler, Sheila West, John Vanden Heuvel, Peter Gillies, Penny Kris-Etherton

Direct Chemical Vapor Deposition of Graphene on Dielectric Surfaces

submitted by: ygzhang
Direct deposition of graphene on various dielectric substrates is demonstrated using a single-step chemical vapor deposition process. Single-layer graphene is formed through surface catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbon precursors on thin copper films predeposited on dielectric substrates. The copper films dewet and evaporate during or immediately after graphene growth, resulting in graphene deposition directly on the bare dielectric substrates. Scanning Raman mapping and spectroscopy,...
Authors: Yuegang Zhang