Role of the Neural Crest in Vertebrate Development and Evolution: Part 3: The Molecular Control of the Neural Crest Contribution to Craniofacial and Brain Development (36:10)

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Further studies have shown that the NC cells which participate in facial skeletogenesis correspond to the anteriormost region of the body axis where the genes of the Hox cluster are not expressed. If the forced expression of Hoxa2, Hoxa3 and Hoxb4 (the most anteriorly expressed Hox genes) is induced in this part of the neural fold, brain development is deeply affected with anencephaly and no skeletogenesis takes place in the face which fails to develop. This phenotype is reproduced when the...

Role of the Neural Crest in Vertebrate Development and Evolution - Part 2: The Role of the Neural Crest in Head Development and in Vertebrate Evolution (30:04)

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Nicole Le Douarin shares her research on the role of the neural crest in skeletal development. The Q/C (quail/chick) marker system revealed that apart from the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the melanocytes and some endocrine tissues, the NC plays a major role in the construction of the vertebrate head. The entire facial skeleton and part of the skull (frontal, squamosal, parietal bones) are of NC origin together with the connective tissues of the face and ventral part of the neck. The...

Role of the Neural Crest in Vertebrate Development and Evolution by Nicole Le Douarin, March 2008 - Part 1: The Quail Chick Marker System and Its Use to Study the Ontogeny of the Neural Crest (24:45)

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The neural crest (NC) is a transitory structure of the Vertebrate embryo. It forms when the neural tube closes through the epithelio- mesenchymal transition of the cells in the joining neural folds. Its constitutive cells are endowed of migratory capacities and are highly pluripotent. NC cells migrate in the developing embryo along definite pathways, at precise periods of time during embryogenesis and settle in elected sites in the body where they develop into a large of cell types. The...