Progress and Promise in Parkinson's

submitted by: CIRMTV

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that affects nearly a million people in the U.S. No cure exists and current medications become less effective over time. This video provides a patient's perspective of living with Parkinson's and a scientist's efforts to better understand the disease using novel stem cell research strategies.

Progress and Promise in Huntington's

submitted by: CIRMTV

Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder that typically strikes in a person's thirties and leads to death 10-15 years later. Through firsthand stories, this video describes the devastating impact of the disease on families, the inspirational power of patient advocacy, and the promise of stem cell research to find a cure.

Genes and Cells that Determine the Lifespan of C. elegans - Part 2: The Regulation of Aging by Signals from the Reproductive System, and, also, a Link Between Aging and Tumor Growth (37:16)

submitted by: video_collector
Once it was thought that aging was just a random and haphazard process. Instead, the rate of aging turns out to be subject to regulation by transcription factors that respond to hormones and other signals. In the nematode C. elegans, in which many key discoveries about aging were first made, the aging process is subject to regulation by food intake, sensory perception, and signals from the reproductive system. Changing genes and cells that affect aging can lengthen lifespan by six fold, and...

Role of the Neural Crest in Vertebrate Development and Evolution: Part 3: The Molecular Control of the Neural Crest Contribution to Craniofacial and Brain Development (36:10)

submitted by: video_collector
Further studies have shown that the NC cells which participate in facial skeletogenesis correspond to the anteriormost region of the body axis where the genes of the Hox cluster are not expressed. If the forced expression of Hoxa2, Hoxa3 and Hoxb4 (the most anteriorly expressed Hox genes) is induced in this part of the neural fold, brain development is deeply affected with anencephaly and no skeletogenesis takes place in the face which fails to develop. This phenotype is reproduced when the...

Role of the Neural Crest in Vertebrate Development and Evolution - Part 2: The Role of the Neural Crest in Head Development and in Vertebrate Evolution (30:04)

submitted by: video_collector
Nicole Le Douarin shares her research on the role of the neural crest in skeletal development. The Q/C (quail/chick) marker system revealed that apart from the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the melanocytes and some endocrine tissues, the NC plays a major role in the construction of the vertebrate head. The entire facial skeleton and part of the skull (frontal, squamosal, parietal bones) are of NC origin together with the connective tissues of the face and ventral part of the neck. The...

Single molecule analyses of DNA in environmental microbes

submitted by: dougramsey
Comprehensive characterization of genomic composition in environmental microbial samples has been challenging, because the majority of microorganisms are difficult to culture. Additional challenges include a high degree of genetic diversity between and within species, various level of relative abundance and ubiquitous presence of cell-free DNA. Single cells or single molecules genomic assays hold great promise for tackling these challenges. Recent progresses in the developments of these...

Electromicrobiology: Novel Approaches for Investigating Charge Transfer and Energy Transformation in Microbial Systems

submitted by: dougramsey
Respiratory microorganisms capture energy for growth and maintenance as they transfer electrons from energy sources to appropriate electron acceptors. Controlling the availability of electron donor and acceptor pairs provides opportunities for investigating fundamental aspects of energy transformation and distribution in defined and un defined microbial cultures. For example, we have noted that in all bacteria investigated to date electron acceptor limitation prompts the production of...

Neuropathic Pain Neurodegenerative Disease

submitted by: alex01

Dr. Remi Quirion (McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) described enhancement of the effects of pain-related peptides by PGE2 . This finding suggests a new, possible complimentary approach to the therapy of pain. Qurion also discussed anti-Alzheimer effect of polyphenols. This effect appears to be due not due to their antioxidant activity only. Quirion suggested the existence of membrane protein than binds polyphenols.

Alzheimer's Disease

submitted by: alex01
Z. Khachaturian, PhD. - New approaches to the therapy of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are discussed in video interviews of this series. According to Z. Khachaturian (Potomac, MD) substantial progress has been made during the last 10 years in our understanding of pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease as well as in the discovery of biomarkers and therapeutic approaches. In addition to cholinergic drugs, inhibitors of plaque formation have been discovered, but the currently available...

Growth Control in Animal Development by Martin Raff- Part 1: Cell Size Control (40:56)

submitted by: video_collector
The size of an organ or organism depends mainly on the sizes and numbers of the cells it contains. In the first segment of my talk, I describe our work on cell size control in cultures of purified rat Schwann cells. Most proliferating cells grow before they divide, but it is not known how growth and division are coordinated to ensure that cells divide at an appropriate size. We have found that extracellular signals can control cell growth and cell-cycle progression separately and that the...