Advances in Proton Therapy, Pencil Beam Technology Reach Patient Care

submitted by: mdanderson

In treating cancer, the pencil beam technology for proton therapy delivers a single, narrow proton beam (about a centimeter in diameter) that is magnetically swept across the tumor, depositing the radiation dose like a painter

Role of the Neural Crest in Vertebrate Development and Evolution: Part 3: The Molecular Control of the Neural Crest Contribution to Craniofacial and Brain Development (36:10)

submitted by: video_collector
Further studies have shown that the NC cells which participate in facial skeletogenesis correspond to the anteriormost region of the body axis where the genes of the Hox cluster are not expressed. If the forced expression of Hoxa2, Hoxa3 and Hoxb4 (the most anteriorly expressed Hox genes) is induced in this part of the neural fold, brain development is deeply affected with anencephaly and no skeletogenesis takes place in the face which fails to develop. This phenotype is reproduced when the...

Gut Feelings: The Intelligence of the Unconscious

submitted by: dougramsey
We think of intelligence as a deliberate, conscious activity guided by the laws of logic. Yet much of our mental life is unconscious, based on processes alien to logic: gut feelings, or intuitions. I argue that intuition is more than impulse and caprice; it has its own rationale. This can be described by fast and frugal heuristics, which exploit evolved abilities in our brain. Heuristics ignore information and try to focus on the few important reasons. More information, more time, even more...

Cytokines and Neutrophins in Neuroprotection

submitted by: alex01
Dr. Michael Spedding published recently a review on the role of cytokines and neurotrophins in disease. Neurotrophins (e.g. BDNF) have beneficial effects on neuronal plasticity and brain metabolism. Inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL1beta)oppose the effects of neurotrophins. Both, neurotrophins and cytokines are targets for the development of new drugs affecting central nervous system. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the main activity-dependent neurotrophic factor. Interleukin 1beta...

TGFß & Alzheimer's Disease

submitted by: alex01

R.A. Flavell (Yale University, New Haven, CT) discusses the role of Transforming Growth Factor ß (TGFß) in disease. In the central nervous system of a murine model of AD this cytokine appears to prevent macrophages from attacking ß-amyloid. Flavell visualizes that selective blockade of this TGFß
activity could lead to the destruction of plaques in patients with AD.

Cannabinoids

submitted by: alex01
Daniele Piomelli, PhD. - Another approach was discussed by D. Piomelli (University of California, Irvine). URB 597, an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is expected to increase anandamide signaling and is being currently clinically tested in the therapy of pain. An increase in anandamide signaling may also be useful in the therapy of depression. This is a novel approach to the development of antidepressants. The signaling can be enhanced by blocking anadamide metabolism or by...

Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis

submitted by: alex01

J. Kocsis, PhD. - The current approaches to the therapy of multiple sclerosis are reviewed by J. Kocsis (Yale University). His research emphasizes remyelination as an approach to the therapy of multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury.

Alzheimer's Disease

submitted by: alex01
Z. Khachaturian, PhD. - New approaches to the therapy of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are discussed in video interviews of this series. According to Z. Khachaturian (Potomac, MD) substantial progress has been made during the last 10 years in our understanding of pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease as well as in the discovery of biomarkers and therapeutic approaches. In addition to cholinergic drugs, inhibitors of plaque formation have been discovered, but the currently available...

Drug Discovery for Alzheimer's Disease

submitted by: alex01

Gregory Rose from PharmExperts.com interviews J. Buccafusco (Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA) about his development of new anti-Altzheimer drugs, designed to act by multiple mechanisms to improve congnition. Desensitization of nicotinic receptors is one of the novel approaches proposed by Buccafusco. Three of his compounds are currently in advanced preclinical evaluation.

Trudy Forte presents "Drugs for Brain Tumors"

submitted by: video_collector

Trudy Forte discusses her work developing nano-sized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that can be used as a safe and effective means of delivering anticancer drugs to brain tumors, particularly the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Series: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Summer Lecture Series [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 13002]