Association between water consumption and body weight outcomes: a systematic review

submitted by: Rebecca
BACKGROUND Drinking water is often applied as a dietary means for weight loss and overweight/obesity prevention, but no evidence-based recommendation exists for this indication. OBJECTIVE We summarized the existing evidence on the association between water consumption and body weight outcomes in adults of any body weight status. DESIGN In a systematic review, we retrieved studies from 4 electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and COCHRANE), cross-references by PubMed functions...
Authors: R Muckelbauer, G Sarganas, A Grüneis, J Müller-Nordhorn

Weight-loss diets in people with type 2 diabetes and renal disease: a randomized controlled trial of the effect of different dietary protein amounts

submitted by: Peter Clifton
ABSTRACT Background: Higher-protein weight-loss diets (defined as >25% of energy as protein) are not recommended for individuals with type 2 diabetes because of their potential adverse effect on renal function. Objective: We aimed to examine the effect of such diets on renal function over 12 mo in people with type 2 diabetes and early renal disease. Design: Overweight and obese people with type 2 diabetes were screened to identify those with an albumin:creatinine ratio from 3 to...
Authors: David Jesudason, Eva Pedersen, Peter Clifton

Weight loss, weight maintenance, and adaptive thermogenesis

submitted by: stefancamps
Background: Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by adaptive thermogenesis, ie, a disproportional or greater than expected reduction of resting metabolic rate (RMR). Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether adaptive thermogenesis is sustained during weight maintenance after weight loss. Design: Subjects were 22 men and 69 women [mean 6 SD age: 40 6 9 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 31.9 6 3.0]. They followed a very-low-energy diet for 8 wk, followed by a...
Authors: Stefan Camps, Sanne Verhoef, Klaas Westerterp

Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

submitted by: tom_witches
Background: It is currently unclear whether altering the carbohydrate-to-protein ratio of low-fat, energy-restricted diets augments weight loss and cardiometabolic risk markers. Objective: The objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that compared energy-restricted, isocaloric, high-protein, low-fat (HP) diets with standard-protein, low-fat (SP) diets on weight loss, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), satiety and appetite, and...
Authors: Thomas Wycherley, Lisa Moran, Peter Clifton, Manny Noakes, Grant Brinkworth

The Obesity Paradox, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Coronary Heart Disease

submitted by: WentzMR

Dr. Carl (Chip) Lavie, a cardiologist from Ochsner Clinic in New Orleans, LA, discusses an article appearing in the May 2012 issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, which provides further evidence for the validation of the obesity paradox. Previous study results may be misleading if fitnessof the patient is not also considered.
Available at: http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(12)00266-2/fulltext

Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial.

submitted by: rdesouza
BACKGROUND: Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. DESIGN: In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and...
Authors: RJ de Souza, GA Bray, VJ Carey, KD Hall, MS Leboff, CM Loria, NM Laranjo, FM Sacks, SR Smith

Body Composition and Coronary Heart Disease - An Obesity or Lean Paradox?

submitted by: mcgheekkm
Dr. Carl (Chip) Lavie, Professor of Medicine in the Department of Cardiovascular Diseases at the John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School and the University of Queensland School of Medicine in New Orleans, Louisiana, discusses his article appearing in the September 2011 issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings on the effects of body composition and coronary heart disease mortality. Available at: http://tinyurl.com/3to6x5q .