How are STDs and STD Complications Treated?

January 03, 2018

Fortunately, most of the common sexually-transmitted diseases can be cured with proper medication. Complications such an infertility can also be prevented when the infected person undergoes STD screening as soon as possible at any of the clinics throughout Singapore. There are infections that will go away after a while even without treatment, but it’s still important to get a prognosis after an STD test to determine if the strain can lead to complications. There are STDs that cannot be cured such as HIV, but there are available treatments to slow the down the progress of the infection.

Curable STDs

1. Gonorrhea. This infection can be treated with antibiotics. The medication, which can be administered orally or by injections, will work against the bacterial infection. Your health care provider will recommend that you and your partner get an STD testing and be treated at the same time to prevent recurrence.

2. Chlamydia. Chlamydia is often treated alongside gonorrhea. Both infections exhibit the same symptoms, if there are any, among infected persons. Chlamydia is also treated using oral or injectable antibiotics.

3. Syphilis. When the condition is detected during the early stages, syphilis can be treated with penicillin. After the STD screening, the doctor will be able to determine if the patient will need a shot of antibiotics. This single-dose drug is usually administered within the first year of the infection. If syphilis has significantly progressed, longer treatments at a Singapore STD testing center are needed but the medication cannot reverse the damage to the organs.

4. Trichomoniasis. This infection can recur, but trichomoniasis can be treated with antibiotics. Make sure that you and your partner get treated at the same time. Pregnant women are given suppositories or creams to treat trichomoniasis. You will also have to set an appointment for another STD testing while you’re being treated.

5. Human Papillomavirus. There are many types of HPV, but the most common is genital warts. The warts will disappear over time even without treatment but you will still be a carrier of the virus. The warts can be treated using topical creams or agents or by freezing.

6. Hepatitis A, B and C. If the type of hepatitis the person has acquired isn’t chronic, there are treatments available in Singapore today. Hepatitis A sometimes will not need any treatment, but it’s still important to get an STD screening to avoid long-lasting damage to the liver. Some types of hepatitis B and C need lifelong treatment using antiviral medications. Hepatitis B vaccine will only work if you haven’t contracted the disease yet.

7. Molluscum Contagiosum. The virus might disappear after a while even without treatment. Although it’s harmless, you should still get an STD testing to determine if you need treatment. The doctor might prescribe laser therapy, cryotherapy, curettage or topical treatments to remove the bumps.

Incurable STDs

1. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 or Oral Herpes. Oral herpes can be caused by HSV1 or HSV2, so be sure to get an STD test to determine the best treatment. Oral herpes cannot be cured but the doctor can prescribe medications to prevent recurring outbreaks.

2. Herpes Simplex Virus 2 or Genital Herpes. This type of herpes cannot be cured but there are medications that can treat the symptoms and limit the severity and length of each outbreak. The virus remains dormant in the person’s nerves for the rest of his/her life. The symptoms are treated with antiviral medication.

3. HIV/AIDS. Currently, there is no cure for human immunodeficiency virus. The infected person will be given antiretroviral drugs to slow down the progress of the disease to AIDS. Symptoms of other infections caused by a weak immune system are treated at the same time.

4. Human Papillomavirus. Some strains of the virus can be cured, but others will stay in the person’s body for life. Other strains can cause cancer and might not even show symptoms. That is why it’s important for women to get a Pap test to determine if there are abnormal cells in the cervix. Unfortunately, there is no standard HPV test for men yet.

5. Chronic Hepatitis B and C. Persons with chronic hepatitis B and C need to watch out for chronic liver disease. Sometimes the symptoms will not appear years after the acute phase or initial phase of the infection.

Fertility and Cancer

If STDs are not diagnosed and treated, you are at risk of the following: ectopic pregnancy, infertility, infection of the newborn, cervical cancer, penile cancer, throat cancer, oral cancer and anal cancer.

Other Non-Cancer Complications

1. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. You need to get an STD screening to treat chlamydia and gonorrhea, the most common culprits. PID can be treated with antibiotics or surgery.

2. Chronic Liver Disease. Most types of hepatitis attack the liver and can lead to cirrhosis. The liver is replaced by scar tissue and will no longer function properly. Sometimes hepatitis can even lead to liver cancer.

3. Bacterial Vaginosis. This might be caused by a sexually transmitted disease, so women should look out for the following symptoms: abnormal discharge, unusually foul odor, irritation and discomfort in the genitals. Bacterial vaginosis can be treated with antibiotics.

4. Epididymitis. Men can suffer from inflammation of the epididymitis or inflammation of the tube that stores and carries the sperm. Sometimes the testicles can also swell. Epididymitis is treated with antibiotics.

5. Reactive Arthritis. Chlamydia can cause inflammation of the joints, eyes, and the urinary tract. Reactive arthritis is an autoimmune disorder which can be treated with antibiotics and NSAIDs.

HIV/AIDS and Opportunistic Infections

HIV itself will not kill the infected person, but it will open up the body to other diseases. These are called opportunistic infections because they take advantage of the person’s inability to ward off diseases. Opportunistic infections can be fatal when the person’s CD4 count is below 200 cells/mm3. The most common opportunistic infections are cervical cancer, tuberculosis, recurrent pneumonia, wasting syndrome, herpes simplex and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. HIV will also increase the risk of developing sarcomas and lymphomas.