"Reading & Writing Genomes" - George Church @ '09 DOE JGI User Meeting

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George Church (Harvard University) keynote talk for DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) '09 Church elaborates on the future direction and development of genomic sequensing and reducing the cost of genomic research, while increasing the efficiency and possibilities, inclusive of developing multivirus resistance genomes. User Meeting on March 26, 2009, with introduction by Len Pennacchio (JGI).George Church (Harvard University) keynote talk for DOE JGI '09 User Meeting on March 26, 2009, with...

The Origin of Vertebrates - Part 3: How Chordates Got Their Chord (19:09)

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In Part 3: How chordates got their chord, Marc Kirschner (Harvard Medical School) discusses how the overall body plan of vertebrates, arose from the invertebrates based on knowledge of the commonalities in their developmental mechanisms. Here again, the acorn worm, offers the key comparison, being close enough to us to share some recognizable features, but far enough away to indicate the direction from whence we came.

The Origin of Vertebrates - Part 2: Telling the Back from the Front or What the Chordates Invented (27:47)

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In Part 2: Telling the back from the front or what the chordates invented, Marc Kirschner (Harvard Medical School) discusses why we look like invertebrate animals turned upside down, i.e. vertebrates have their central nervous system on their backs and invertebrates have it on their bellies.

Role of the Neural Crest in Vertebrate Development and Evolution: Part 3: The Molecular Control of the Neural Crest Contribution to Craniofacial and Brain Development (36:10)

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Further studies have shown that the NC cells which participate in facial skeletogenesis correspond to the anteriormost region of the body axis where the genes of the Hox cluster are not expressed. If the forced expression of Hoxa2, Hoxa3 and Hoxb4 (the most anteriorly expressed Hox genes) is induced in this part of the neural fold, brain development is deeply affected with anencephaly and no skeletogenesis takes place in the face which fails to develop. This phenotype is reproduced when the...

Role of the Neural Crest in Vertebrate Development and Evolution - Part 2: The Role of the Neural Crest in Head Development and in Vertebrate Evolution (30:04)

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Nicole Le Douarin shares her research on the role of the neural crest in skeletal development. The Q/C (quail/chick) marker system revealed that apart from the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the melanocytes and some endocrine tissues, the NC plays a major role in the construction of the vertebrate head. The entire facial skeleton and part of the skull (frontal, squamosal, parietal bones) are of NC origin together with the connective tissues of the face and ventral part of the neck. The...

The Problem of Regeneration: Part 3: Molecular Basis of Regeneration: Planarians as a Model System (43:54)

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In the third and last part of this lecture, I will introduce the model system we have developed to study animal regeneration, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. I will review its anatomy, and the biological attributes that make these animals extraordinarily well suited to dissect the molecular and cellular basis of regeneration. I will also discuss recent work from my laboratory aimed at identifying molecules associated with regenerative capacities.