Cdc42 controls spindle orientation to position the apical surface during epithelial morphogenesis

submitted by: JCB
The establishment of apical–basal polarity within a single cell and throughout a growing tissue is a key feature of epithelial morphogenesis. To examine the underlying mechanisms, the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 was grown in a three-dimensional matrix to generate a cystlike structure, where the apical surface of each epithelial cell faces a fluid-filled central lumen. A discrete apical domain is established as early as the first cell division and between the two daughter...
Authors: Aron Jaffe, Noriko Kaji, Joanne Durgan, Alan Hall

One-Dimensional Topography Underlies Three-Dimensional Fibrillar Cell Migration

submitted by: JCB
Current concepts of cell migration were established in regular two-dimensional (2D) cell culture, but the roles of topography are poorly understood for cells migrating in an oriented 3D fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM). We use a novel micropatterning technique termed microphotopatterning (µPP) to identify functions for 1D fibrillar patterns in 3D cell migration. In striking contrast to 2D, cell migration in both 1D and 3D is rapid, uniaxial, independent of ECM ligand density, and...
Authors: Andrew Doyle, Francis Wang, Kazue Matsumoto

Collective cell migration requires vesicular trafficking for chemoattractant delivery at the trailing edge

submitted by: JCB
Chemoattractant signaling induces the polarization and directed movement of cells secondary to the activation of multiple effector pathways. In addition, chemotactic signals can be amplified and relayed to proximal cells via the synthesis and secretion of additional chemoattractant. The mechanisms underlying such remarkable features remain ill defined. We show that the asymmetrical distribution of adenylyl cyclase (ACA) at the back of Dictyostelium discoideum cells, an essential determinant...
Authors: Paul Kriebel, Valarie Barr, Erin Rericha, Guofeng Zhang, Carole Parent

Plant biotech for food and environment

submitted by: pieter

A better knowledge ot the processes in plants can lead to plants that are better suited for food and environment.

Biotech for Health

submitted by: pieter

Fundamental biomedical research leads to hope against 'incurable' diseases, like ALS, cancer and Chron's

What Genomes Can Tell Us About the Past by Sydney Brenner - Part 2: (42:36)

submitted by: video_collector

In the second part of talk, I explore other clues that suggest that genomes are not at equilibrium. Some genes appear to be changing more slowly and these older "fossil" genes in modern day genomes may give us insight into the distant past. I also hope to convince you that many of the great mysteries in contemporary biology do not require big research labs but can be solved through "home genomics"- piecing together information through a computer, the internet, and an inquisitive mind.