A Whole-Grain–Rich Diet Reduces Urinary Excretion of Markers of Protein Catabolism and Gut Microbiota Metabolism in Healthy Men after One Week

submitted by: Alastair Ross
Epidemiological studies consistently find that diets rich in whole-grain (WG) cereals lead to decreased risk of disease compared with refined grain (RG)-based diets. Aside from a greater amount of fiber and micronutrients, possible mechanisms for why WGs may be beneficial for health remain speculative. In an exploratory, randomized, researcherblinded, crossover trial, we measured metabolic profile differences between healthy participants eating a diet based on WGs compared with a diet...
Authors: Alastair Ross, Emma Pere-Trépat, Ivan Montoliu, Francois-Pierre Martin, Sebastiano Collino, Sofia Moco, Jean-Philippe Godin, Marilyn Cléroux, Philippe Guy, Isabelle Breton, Rodrigo Bibiloni, Anita Thorimbert, Isabelle Tavazzi, Lionel Tornier, Aude Bebuis, Stephen Bruce, Maurice Beaumont, Laurent-Bernard Fay, Sunil Kochhar

DNA methylation potential: dietary intake and blood concentrations of one-carbon metabolites and cofactors in rural African women

submitted by: enphpdom
Background: Animal models show that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B-12, choline, and betaine can induce differences in offspring phenotype mediated by epigenetic changes in DNA. In humans, altered DNA methylation patterns have been observed in offspring whose mothers were exposed to famine or who conceived in the Gambian rainy season. Objective: The objective was to understand the seasonality of DNA methylation patterns in rural Gambian women. We studied natural...
Authors: P Dominguez-Salas, AM Prentice

Grape Powder Supplementation Prevents Oxidative Stress–Induced Anxiety-Like Behavior, Memory Impairment, and High Blood Pressure in Rats

submitted by: ssalim
We examined whether or not grape powder treatment ameliorates oxidative stress–induced anxiety-like behavior, memory impairment, and hypertension in rats. Oxidative stress in Sprague-Dawley rats was produced by using L-buthionine- (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO). Four groups of rats were used: 1) control (C; injected with vehicle and provided with tap water), 2) grape powder–treated (GP; injected with vehicle and provided for 3 wk with 15 g/L grape powder dissolved in tap water), 3)...
Authors: Farida Allam, An Dao, Gaurav Chugh, Ritu Bohat, Faizan Jafri, Gaurav Patki, Christopher Mowrey, Mohammad Asghar, Karim Alkadhi, Samina Salim

Factors predicting overweight in US kindergarteners

submitted by: glflor
BACKGROUND: Childhood overweight is a substantial public-health problem, but little is known about predictors of early childhood overweight. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify factors-alone and in combination-that predict kindergarten overweight. DESIGN: We analyzed nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a longitudinal cohort study of 6800 children followed from birth through kindergarten. Multivariable logistic regression and recursive...
Authors: Glenn Flores, Hua Lin

biosights: May 13, 2013 - Ventral lamellipodia plug the gaps

submitted by: JCB
When leukocytes enter or exit the blood stream, they leave small wounds both in and between the vascular endothelial cells, which must be quickly repaired so that the endothelium can maintain its barrier function. Martinelli et al. reveal that wounding causes a loss of tension in endothelial cells, inducing the formation of ventral lamellipodia that close the holes left by transmigrating leukocytes. This biosights episode presents the paper by Martinelli et al. from the April 29, 2013, issue...

Bacterial Aerotaxis

submitted by: mhrussel

Aerotaxis is the movement of an organism in response to environmental oxygen concentrations, either towards or away from a given oxygen concentration. Many bacteria are microaerophilic meaning they prefer environments with low oxygen content. Higher or lower O2 content than the optimum are considered a repellant and bacteria will navigate towards the optimum. This animation is an overview of studying aerotaxis in motile bacteria.