Targeted Gene Identification from Short Gene Fragments in Metagenome and their Use in Biogeochemical Studies

submitted by: dougramsey
Metagenomics allows for a new approach to studying biogeochemical processes in an environment, by giving an approximation of a community’s biogeochemical potential through the genes involved in a given process. Lipid biomarkers are well suited to this kind of approach because they are important for a number of biogeochemical questions and some have well studied biosynthetic pathways. One important class of lipid biomarkers, triterpenoids, were investigated in a new metagenomic sample that...

Metabonomic profiling of the gut microbiome: Implications for human health James Kinross, Imperial College, London

submitted by: dougramsey
Microbial-mammalian metabolic cooperation is defined as the human ‘metabonome’. Transgenomic co-metabolic interactions within the metabonome greatly increase system complexity and this presents a significant challenge for elucidating the mechanisms by which the intestinal micro biome influences the host phenotype. By measuring and mathematically modelling changes in the levels of products of metabolism found in mammalian biological fluids and tissues, metabonomics offers fresh insight...

Integrated Information System for Genomic and Metagenomic Data Analysis at National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)

submitted by: dougramsey
Recent advances in biotechnology and bioinformatics has provided a flood of genomic data and tremendous growth in the number of associated data sets. Sequencing projects now include draft assemblies, complete genomes, comparative genomics, and metagenomics where genetic material is sequenced directly from environmental samples. The NCBI provides integrated systems for data storage, retrieval, and analysis. GenBank, an archival database of DNA sequences, contains consensus sequences assembled...

Diversity Profile of the Human Skin Microbiome in Health and Disease Elizabeth A. Grice, National Institutes of Health

submitted by: dougramsey

Elizabeth A. Grice of National Institutes of Health discusses "Diversity Profile of the Human Skin Microbiome in Health and Disease"

The Evolution of Small Bacterial Genomesin the Ultra-Oligotrophic Ocean

submitted by: dougramsey
The size and coding capacity of a genome are its most fundamental properties. What selective pressures deter mine the expansion and contraction of genomes, and how is genome size related to adaptive strategies? Very small marine microbial genomes are providing new insights into these questions. The first reports of genome sequences from the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus and the α-proteo bacterium SAR11 (Pelagibacter) established that these very abundant marine bacterioplankton clades have...

New Sequencing Technologies at JGI and Applications in Bioenergy Research

submitted by: dougramsey
The US DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) is a high throughput sequencing and genomic research center involved in a myriad of sequencing projects. JGI’s major effort is the sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes of plants, microbes and environmental metagenomic samples of relevance to the DOE missions of carbon sequestration, bioremediation and energy production. Roche/454’s platform utilizes emulsion PCR for template amplification and pyrosequencing technology on high well-density...